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Lucius Verus Timeline

Lucius Verus Timeline


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  • 130 CE

    Birth of Lucius Verus, son of Lucius Aelius Caesar.

  • 136 CE

    Adoption of L. Aelius Caesar by Hadrian.

  • 1 Jan 138 CE

    Death of L. Aelius Caesar.

  • 10 Jul 138 CE - 9 Mar 161 CE

  • 9 Mar 161 CE - Mar 169 CE

    Marcus Aurelius rules with Lucius Verus.

  • 9 Mar 161 CE

  • 165 CE - 167 CE

    Plague epidemic in the Roman empire.

  • Oct 166 CE

    Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius celebrate a shared triumph, both are hailed as Pater Patriae.

  • 169 CE


Lucius was nearly thirteen in the year 180 CE, and he had only one parent, the Princess of Rome. He became friends with Commodus' enemy, the gladiator and General Maximus Decimus Meridius, who had a conversation with the young Prince of Rome.

He enjoyed to watch the Gladitorial Games, and enjoyed learning about ancient Roman history from his uncle, Commodus. He had to watch the death of his uncle at the hands of Maximus, who also was killed by mortal wounds. Historically, he died at a very young age.


Census records can tell you a lot of little known facts about your Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus ancestors, such as occupation. Occupation can tell you about your ancestor's social and economic status.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus. For the veterans among your Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.

There are 3,000 census records available for the last name Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.

There are 642 immigration records available for the last name Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.

There are 1,000 military records available for the last name Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus. For the veterans among your Lucius Aelius Aurelius Verus ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.


Timeline of the plague throughout history

The other day I was reading up on the plague, and I realized that there wasn’t a comprehensive timeline on any single website. So I compiled the information that I could find and well, here’s a timeline of the plague for anyone else who’s interested.

430 BCE – 2 nd year of Peloponnesian War. Thucydides wrote of a disease that is believed to be the Plague. Some scholars debate that it was smallpox. Killed one-third of the population in Athens.

1 st Century – Rufus of Ephesus, a Greek anatomist, refers to an outbreak of plague in Libya, Egypt, and Syria

160 – Plague contributes to the collapse of the Han empires

165-180 – “Antonine” plague kills five million people of the Roman empire. Emperors Lucius Verus (in 169) and Marcus Aurelius (in 180) also succumb to the plague.

262 – A plague in Rome kills about 5000 people a day

540 – An outbreak of the plague occurs at Pelusium, Egypt.

541 – “Justinian plague” kills a quarter of the population in the Mediterranean region. 25 million worldwide. Lasted till about 750

542 – Plague reaches Constantinople.

588 – A second major wave of plague spread through the Mediterranean into what is now France.

1333 – Plague erupts in China

1338-1339 – Plague reported to be in central Asia

1345 – Mongols die of plague in the Russian steppes

1347 – Plague spreads to Constantinople, beginning its spread into Europe due to Constantinople’s major role as a port city. The plague is also in Southern Ukraine.

Oct. 1347 – Plague is brought to Sicily by a ship from the east. Reaches Alexandria and Cyprus as well.

Dec. 1347 – Plague hits Venice

Jan. 1348 – Reaches France and Germany

Sept. 1348 – Reaches London

1349 – Reaches Scotland, Wales, and Ireland

May 1349 – Reaches Norway

Oct. 1349 – The Pope condemns the actions of the Flagellants.

1351 – Reaches Russia

Chine loses around half its population

65 million.
Europe loses around one-third of its population

50 million.
Africa loses around one-eighth of its population

70 million
Thought that 1.4 million died in England (one-third of England’s 4.2 million people)

1353 – Giovanni Boccaccio finishes writing The Decameron, a fictional narrative that opens with a description of the 1348 outbreak of Black Death in Florence, Italy.

May 1665 – The Great Plague of London begins. 43 people dying of plague by May.

June 1665 – 6,137 people die by June.

July 1665 – 17,036 people die by July.

Aug. 1665 – 31,159 people die by August.

1666 – The Great Fire of London destroys most of the rats and fleas that carry the plague bacillus.

1679 – The plague devastates central Europe. There is a small outbreak in England. This is the last outbreak England will ever see.

1711 – Plague breaks out in Austria.

1722 – Daniel Defoe publishes A Journal of the Plague Year, a fictional recounting of the great Plague of London in 1665.

1770 – The Balkans battle the Plague for two years. But after this the plague mainly disappears from Europe.

1855 – The “Third Pandemic”, begins in China and spreads throughout the world, with China and India affected the most. Overall, this pandemic brings death to more than 12 million people.

1877 – The pandemic flares up again in Russia, China, and India.

1889– The Third Pandemic comes to an end.

1894 – The Plague appears in Hong Kong, then moving to India, where 10 million will die from it in the next twenty years. Death rate of about 90%.

1894 – Working independently, bacteriologists Alexandre Yersin and Shibasaburo Kitasato both isolate the bacterium that causes bubonic Plague. Yersin discovers that rodents are the mode of infection. The bacterium is named Yersinia pestis after Yersin.

1896 – The pandemic in China and India ends.

1900 – Outbreaks of Plague occur in Portugal and Australia.

1900-1904 – 121 people get the bubonic plague in San Francisco only three survive.

1910 – In Manchuria, 60,000 people die due to pneumonic Plague over the course of a year.

1920 – Again in Manchuria, about 60,000 people die of Plague.

1924-25 – In Los Angeles, 40 people get the plague and only two survive.

1947 – Albert Camus publishes The Plague, a novel about a fictional outbreak of plague in Oran, Algeria.

Summer 1994 – 5,000 cases of pneumonic Plague occur in Surat, India, killing approximately 100 people.

2005 – Three mice infected with Bubonic Plague disappear from a laboratory at the Public HealthResearchInstitute on the campus of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.

July 2014 – One man in China dies of the pneumonic plague. Four more are diagnosed with it in the Colorado.


Lucius Verus


Roman emperor
Lucius Verus , in full Lucius Aurelius Verus , also called (136� ce ) Lucius Ceionius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus , original name Lucius Ceionius Commodus (born Dec. 15, 130 —died 169 ) Roman emperor jointly (161�) with Marcus Aurelius . Though he enjoyed equal constitutional status and powers, he did not have equal authority, nor did he seem capable of bearing his share of the responsibilities.

Lucius was the son of a senator, Lucius Ceionius Commodus , whom the emperor Hadrian adopted as his successor under the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. When Ceionius died on Jan. 1, 138, Hadrian designated Antoninus Pius as his successor. He ordered Antoninus to adopt as his heirs Ceionius’s son Lucius and his own nephew Marcus Annius Verus (the future

emperor Marcus Aurelius), who was also given the title caesar . Marcus insisted that his adoptive brother be given the same status and powers as himself, except for the title pontifex maximus (high priest). Lucius then dropped the name Commodus and assumed Marcus’s original cognomen of Verus. In 164 he married Marcus’s daughter, Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, with whom he had several children. When sent to deal with Parthian conquests in Armenia and Mesopotamia (162�), Lucius dallied in Antioch while subordinate generals concluded the war. He celebrated a triumph jointly with Marcus in October 166 and assumed the names Armeniacus, Parthicus, and Medicus (as conqueror of the Armenians, Parthians, and Medes)




n 167 or 168 Verus campaigned with Marcus Aurelius in the vicinity of Pannonia against a German people, the Marcomanni , but he died of a stroke on the march home.

roman wae against marcomannii


No rest for the wealthy

Germs were the great equalizer of Roman society: money and status couldn’t save one from infection.

Medicine was mostly useless against the virus. Roman doctors had limited treatments and often resorted to herbs, incantations, and prayers to the gods. The solutions used by the world’s leading medical expert, Galen, were outrageous. He’d be immediately stripped of his medical license by today’s standards, if not jailed.

In the ultimate act of indiscriminate virulence, co-emperor and military leader, Lucius Verus, was infected and his health declined over the course of several weeks. He eventually died from the disease.

Marcus Aurelius was left to manage a thinned out and resource strained military, in addition to his other duties.


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Timeline of Roman emperors

27 BCE – 14 CE
Reign of Augustus Caesar. Athens and the Agora restored.


18 Sep 14 CE – 16 Mar 37 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Tiberius.


18 Mar 37 CE – 24 Jan 41 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Caligula.


25 Jan 41 CE – 13 Oct 54 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Claudius.


13 Oct 54 CE – 11 Jun 68 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Nero.


68 CE – 69 CE
Year of the Four Emperors: Civil war in Rome.


8 Jun 68 CE – 15 Jan 69 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Galba.


15 Jan 69 CE – 16 Apr 69 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Otho.


17 Apr 69 CE – 20 Dec 69 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Vitellius.


26 Dec 69 CE – 23 Jun 79 CE
Reign of Roman emperor Vespasian.


24 Jun 79 CE – 13 Sep 81 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Titus.


14 Sep 81 CE – 18 Sep 96 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Domitian.


18 Sep 96 CE – 27 Jan 98 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Nerva.


28 Jan 98 CE – 7 Aug 117 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Trajan.


11 Aug 117 CE – 10 Jul 138 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian.


10 Jul 138 CE – 7 Mar 161 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Antonius Pius.


10 Jul 138 CE – 9 Mar 161 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.


7 Mar 161 CE – 17 Mar 180 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.


9 Mar 161 CE – Mar 169 CE
Marcus Aurelius rules with Lucius Verus.


Mar 169 CE – 177 CE
Marcus Aurelius rules alone.


177 CE – 17 Mar 180 CE
Marcus Aurelius rules with Commodus.


17 Mar 180 CE – 31 Dec 192 CE
Commodus rules alone.


9 Apr 193 CE – 4 Feb 211 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Septimius Severus.


1 Jan 193 CE – 28 Mar 193 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Pertinax.


28 Mar 193 CE – 1 Jun 193 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Didius Julianus.


198 CE – 209 CE
Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus.


209 CE – Dec 211 CE
Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus and his brother Geta

(Feb – Dec 211 only with Geta).


209 CE – 26 Dec 211 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Geta.


Dec 211 CE – 8 Apr 217 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Caracalla.


11 Apr 217 CE – 8 Jun 218 CE
Reign of Roman Emperors Macrinus with his son Diadumenian.


8 Jun 218 CE – 11 Mar 222 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Elagabalus.


13 Mar 222 CE – 18 Mar 235 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander.


Mar 235 CE – May 238 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax.


22 Mar 238 CE – 12 Apr 238 CE
Reign of Gordian I and Gordian II in Rome.


238 CE – 244 CE
Reign of Gordian III in Rome.


244 CE – 249 CE
Reign of Philip the Arab in Rome.


22 Dec 245 CE
Birth of Emperor Diocletian.


249 CE – 251 CE
Reign of Decius in Rome.


253 CE – 260 CE
Reign of Roman emperor Valerian with his son Gallienus as co-emperor.


253 CE
Reign of Aemilianus in Rome.


253 CE – 268 CE
Reign of Gallienus in Rome.


Sep 270 CE – c. Sep 275 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Aurelian.


284 CE – 305 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Diocletian.


306 CE – 337 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Constantine I.


Reign of Roman Emperor Titus.


14 Sep 81 CE – 18 Sep 96 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Domitian.


18 Sep 96 CE – 27 Jan 98 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Nerva.


28 Jan 98 CE – 7 Aug 117 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Trajan.


11 Aug 117 CE – 10 Jul 138 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian.


10 Jul 138 CE – 7 Mar 161 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Antonius Pius.


10 Jul 138 CE – 9 Mar 161 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.


7 Mar 161 CE – 17 Mar 180 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.


9 Mar 161 CE – Mar 169 CE
Marcus Aurelius rules with Lucius Verus.


Mar 169 CE – 177 CE
Marcus Aurelius rules alone.


177 CE – 17 Mar 180 CE
Marcus Aurelius rules with Commodus.


17 Mar 180 CE – 31 Dec 192 CE
Commodus rules alone.


9 Apr 193 CE – 4 Feb 211 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Septimius Severus.


1 Jan 193 CE – 28 Mar 193 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Pertinax.


28 Mar 193 CE – 1 Jun 193 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Didius Julianus.


198 CE – 209 CE
Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus.


209 CE – Dec 211 CE
Reign of Caracalla with his father Septimius Severus and his brother Geta (Feb – Dec 211 only with Geta).


209 CE – 26 Dec 211 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Geta.


Dec 211 CE – 8 Apr 217 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Caracalla.


11 Apr 217 CE – 8 Jun 218 CE
Reign of Roman Emperors Macrinus with his son Diadumenian.


8 Jun 218 CE – 11 Mar 222 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Elagabalus.


13 Mar 222 CE – 18 Mar 235 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander.


Mar 235 CE – May 238 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Maximinus Thrax.


22 Mar 238 CE – 12 Apr 238 CE
Reign of Gordian I and Gordian II in Rome.


238 CE – 244 CE
Reign of Gordian III in Rome.


244 CE – 249 CE
Reign of Philip the Arab in Rome.


22 Dec 245 CE
Birth of Emperor Diocletian.


249 CE – 251 CE
Reign of Decius in Rome.


253 CE – 260 CE
Reign of Roman emperor Valerian with his son Gallienus as co-emperor.


253 CE
Reign of Aemilianus in Rome.


253 CE – 268 CE
Reign of Gallienus in Rome.


Sep 270 CE – c. Sep 275 CE
Reign of Roman Emperor Aurelian.


Rome’s Parthian War, A.D. 161-166

Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (reigned A.D. 138-161) made sure his heirs stayed in Rome under his watchful eye. Thus both of his adoptive sons, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, achieved middle age without traveling the provinces and without gaining military experience. Marcus Aurelius pursued the consolations of philosophy and self-discipline. Lucius Verus partied.

Within six months of Marcus and Lucius becoming co-emperors upon Antoninus’ death in 161, Parthian ruler Vologases IV decided that Rome’s new emperors were weak and could be bullied. The rivalry between the two great empires of Rome and Parthia had existed for several hundred years when Vologases initiated a new challenge by seizing Rome’s client state Armenia and installing a new king. Rome’s response was to send a legion – it was massacred. Vologases then invaded the Roman province of Syria and defeated its governor. Things were heating up in the ancient Middle East.

There was no question of which of Rome’s two new emperors was senior. Lucius obeyed Marcus in all things, as it left him more time for his amusements. Nevertheless, Marcus realized that the war against Parthia required the presence of an emperor, yet he could not leave Rome while their new reign was being consolidated. He therefore dispatched Lucius to the Middle East hot spot hoping that responsibility would strengthen his character.

Marcus did not stint in providing resources for the war. He sent three crack legions from the Rhine and Danube frontiers, part of the Praetorian Guard and thousands of auxiliaries east to reinforce the legions in Syria, which had a reputation for slackness. He also sent a very able team of staff officers and generals, chief among them Statius Priscus. Lucius followed in summer of 162 in what amounted to a leisurely, nonstop party. The journey may have lasted a year as he visited every tourist site and resort between Rome and Antioch. He finally arrived in Syria, where he promptly set up at the famous resort of Daphne. His army, meanwhile, spent the year building roads and intensively training. The Romans had long since devised tactics to deal with the Parthian horse archers and cataphracts (heavily armored cavalry) that destroyed the armies of Marcus Crassus (53 B.C.) and Mark Antony (37 B.C.).

At the beginning of the A.D. 163 campaign season (March-June), General Priscus led two legions on a 20-day march over 300 miles to recapture Armenia and its capital of Artaxata by bloody storm. Although Lucius never set foot in Armenia, he awarded himself the honorific title of Armeniacus. That summer, more legions arrived to reinforce the army in the Middle East since the Parthians had overrun the Roman client kingdom of Osroene in upper Mesopotamia. In eastern Syria a large Roman force under C. Avidius Cassius fought a hard-won battle at Sura on the Roman side of the Euphrates. Roman forces coming down from Armenia then drove the Parthians out of Osroene. Lucius was surprised that Vologases rejected his peace feelers after these reverses. The war would then be carried into Parthia, and the next year was spent in preparation. Unfortunately, the able Priscus died in late 163 however, an even more able man succeeded him.

Lucius split his time between Laodicea on the Orontes River and Daphne, while his interest was devoted to a particularly beautiful Greek woman named Panthea. He had little time for the war, which was all for the good, for his talented generals were doing just fine without him. Lucius’ only evident skill, upon which all were agreed, was that of a good delegator. He was to visit the Euphrates front only once during the war and then only at the insistence of his generals, who stated his military credibility was at stake.

The senior command was now in the hands of Cassius, described as a “ferocious martinet” whose draconian measures were needed to whip the slack Syrian legions into shape and keep the others up to the mark. Early in 165, two Roman armies marched into the Parthian Empire. The northern force, under Marcus Claudius Fronto, secured northern Mesopotamia after winning a battle at Edessa and chasing the Parthians eastward until their general, Chosroes, had to flee across the Tigris and hide in a cave.

The main army, under Cassius, crossed the Euphrates on a bridge of boats and brought the Parthians to battle at Dura-Europas, where it won a stunning victory. Cassius then moved down the Euphrates to its junction with the Tigris, where lay Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital, and Seleucia, a great commercial city whose population approached that of Rome. The latter opened its gates, but conflict between its Greek and Semitic communities somehow sparked a vicious and bloody sack by the Romans. The famous statue from the Temple of Apollo was taken back to Rome and installed in the god’s temple on the Palatine Hill. It was said at the time that the plague (thought to be smallpox) that followed the army’s return to ravage the Roman Empire was the god’s punishment for the sacrilege of his shrine.

The Romans then marched to the Persian Gulf, which the Roman emperor Trajan had reached almost 50 years before. With the victory over Parthia, Verus assumed the title of Parthicus. Attempting to do one better than Trajan, Cassius the next year invaded Media, the heart of the Parthian Empire. The expedition was a failure (sources are silent as to why), although that did not stop Lucius from adopting the title of Medicus.

Most of the Roman conquests proved ephemeral, reflecting the accepted wisdom of experience that what the Romans could conquer in the vastness of Parthia they did not have the manpower to hold. Lucius, however, carefully instructed his chroniclers on how to make history interpret these events. He wrote, “I am ready to fall in with any suggestions as long as my exploits are set in a bright light” and “the magnitude of my exploits [is] made manifest.” Although Lucius could not claim to have commanded in battle, he spun the story to show that he was the organizer of victory. His sycophantic chroniclers more than rose to the challenge, earning the derision of the poet Lucan to the point where they were laughed out of the history books.

Peter Tsourasis the author of 26 books on military history. He served in the Army and Army Reserve and worked for the Defense Intelligence Agency until retiring in 2010 to devote himself to writing, his roses, and his grandchildren.

Originally published in the March 2013 issue of Armchair General.


Lucius Verus and the Roman Defence of the East

Lucius Verus is one of the least regarded Roman emperors, despite the fact that he was co-ruler with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius for nine years until his untimely death. The later sources were strangely hostile to him and modern writers tend to dismiss him, but contemporary writings shine a more favorable light on his accomplishments. His handling of military affairs, particularly the conflict with Parthia after their invasions of Armenia and Syria, deserves a new consideration in the light of a careful reassessment of all the available source material. This volume looks at the upbringing of the boy who lost two fathers, acquired a brother, had his name changed twice, became a general overnight, and commanded the army that defeated one of Rome’s greatest foes in the 2nd century AD. His rise to power is placed in the context of Rome’s campaigns in the East and the part played by all – from the ordinary soldiers up to the aristocracy who commanded them – in making Lucius Verus’ Parthian Wars a success.



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