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Mapungubwe Timeline

Mapungubwe Timeline

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Kingdom of Mapungubwe

The Kingdom of Mapungubwe (or Maphungubgwe) (c.1075–1220) was a medieval state in South Africa located at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo rivers, south of Great Zimbabwe. The name is derived from either TjiKalanga and Tshivenda. The name might mean "Hill of Jackals". [1] The kingdom was the first stage in a development that would culminate in the creation of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe in the 13th century, and with gold trading links to Rhapta and Kilwa Kisiwani on the African east coast. The Kingdom of Mapungubwe lasted about 80 years, and at its height the capital's population was about 5000 people. [2]

This archaeological site can be attributed to the BuKalanga Kingdom, which comprised the Kalanga people from northeast Botswana and western Zimbabwe, the Nambya south of the Zambezi Valley, and the Vha Venda in the northeast of South Africa. The Mapungubwe Collection of artifacts found at the archaeological site is housed in the Mapungubwe Museum in Pretoria.

Timeline of Pietermaritzburg

KwaZulu-Natal is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu and Natal Province were merged. It is located in the southeast of the country, enjoying a long shoreline beside the Indian Ocean and sharing borders with three other provinces, and the countries of Mozambique, Eswatini and Lesotho. Its capital is Pietermaritzburg, and its largest city is Durban. It is the second-most populous province in South Africa, with slightly fewer residents than Gauteng.

Durban, nicknamed Durbs, is the third most populous city in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town and the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Durban forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which includes neighboring towns and has a population of about 3.44 million, making the combined municipality one of the largest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. Durban was one of the host cities of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

Pietermaritzburg is the capital and second-largest city in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It was founded in 1838 and is currently governed by the Msunduzi Local Municipality. Its Zulu name umGungundlovu is the name used for the district municipality. Pietermaritzburg is popularly called Maritzburg in Afrikaans, English and Zulu alike, and often informally abbreviated to PMB. It is a regionally important industrial hub, producing aluminium, timber and dairy products, as well as the main economic hub of Umgungundlovu District Municipality. The public sector is a major employer in the city due to the local, district and provincial governments being located here.

The University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) is a university with five campuses in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. It was formed on 1 January 2004 after the merger between the University of Natal and the University of Durban-Westville.

Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife is a governmental organisation responsible for maintaining wildlife conservation areas and biodiversity in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Their headquarters is in Queen Elizabeth Park situated on the northern slopes of Pietermaritzburg, the KwaZulu-Natal provincial capital. Prior to 1994, it was known as the Natal Parks Board.

Pinetown is a small city that is part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, inland from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Pinetown is situated 16 km west of Durban at an elevation of 1,000 to 1,300 feet.

The Msunduzi River is a river in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It is also known by its anglicised name, the Dusi River. The original name, Msunduzi, is isiZulu.

The Durban University of Technology (DUT) is a University in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. It was formed in 2002 following the merger of Technikon Natal and ML Sultan Technikon and it was initially known as the Durban Institute of Technology. It has five campuses in Durban, and two in Pietermaritzburg. In July 2019, approximately 33932 students were enrolled to study at DUT. The University is one of 5 technical institutions on the African continent to offer Doctoral Degrees. The current Chancellor is Ms Nonkululeko Nyembezi.

The Valley of a Thousand Hills is a valley between Pietermaritzburg, and Durban, South Africa. it is near a village called.There Umgeni River meets the Msunduzi River in the valley, and the Dusi Canoe Marathon is run through the area every year

Peter McKenzie Brown (1924�) was a founding member of the Liberal Party of South Africa and succeeded Alan Paton as its national chairman in 1958.

Sandile Ndlovu (born 1 July 1980 in [Pietermaritzburg], KwaZulu-Natal is a South African football striker who played for Premier Soccer League clubs Bloemfontein Celtic, Moroka Swallows, Maritzburg United, Dynamos, Mamelodi Sundowns, and Bafana Bafana.

Msunduzi Local Municipality is a local municipality in Umgungundlovu District Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It encompasses the city of Pietermaritzburg, which is the capital of the KwaZulu-Natal province and the main economic hub of Umgungundlovu District Municipality.

Zwelini Lawrence Mkhize is a South African doctor, legislator and politician who has served as the Minister of Health since 30 May 2019. He previously served as the Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs from 2018 to 2019. He was the 5th Premier of KwaZulu-Natal from 2009 to 2013. Mkhize is a member of the African National Congress and was the party's Treasurer-General between 2012 and 2017.

The KwaZulu-Natal Division of the High Court of South Africa is a superior court of law with general jurisdiction over the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main seat of the division is at Pietermaritzburg, while a subordinate local seat at Durban has concurrent jurisdiction over the coastal region of the province. As of August� the Judge President of the division is Chiman Patel.

The KwaZulu-Natal National Botanical Garden is situated along Mayor's Walk, in the western suburbs of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. The identification code of the KwaZulu-Natal National Botanical Garden as a member of the Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI), as well as the initials of its herbarium is NBGN .

Edendale is a township in Msunduzi local municipality in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

There have been a number of political assassinations in post-apartheid South Africa. In 2013 it was reported that there had been more than 450 political assassinations in the province of KwaZulu-Natal since the end of apartheid in 1994. In July 2013 the Daily Maverick reported that there had been "59 political murders in the last five years". In August 2016 it was reported that there had been at least twenty political assassinations in the run up to the local government elections on the 3rd of August that year, most of them in KwaZulu-Natal.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Durban in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.

Mervyn Alexander Dirks is a South African politician serving as a Member of the National Assembly of South Africa. A member of the African National Congress, he became an MP in 2014 and is currently the ANC's chief whip in the Standing Committee of Public Accounts. Dirks was a municipal councillor of the Msunduzi Local Municipality where he served as the deputy mayor.

Tshiguvho Family

8 Venda Homeland . 1. VHAVENDA The Vhavenda of today are descendants of many heterogeneous groupings and clans such as: • Vhadau • Vhakwevho • Vhambedzi • Vhafamadi • Vhania • Vhagoni • Vhalea • Vhaluvhu • Vhatavhatsindi • Vhatwanamba • Vhanzhelele/Vhalembethu • Vhanyai • Vhalaudzi

2 • Masingo and • Vhalemba. Vhadau, Vhakwevho, Vhafamadi, Vhania, Vhagoni, Vhalea, and Vhaluvhu were collectively known as Vhangona. The Vhangona and Vhambedzi are considered to be the original inhabitants of Venda. The land of Vhangona was later settled by Karanga-Rodzvi clans from Zimbabwe: Vhatwanamba, Vhanyai, Vhatavhatsindi, and Vhalembethu. Masingo, Vhalaudzi, and Vhalemba are late arrivals in Venda. According to one version of Vhangona oral history the capital of Vhangona was Mapungubwe with the Raphulu Royal House as the most senior royal house of the Vhangona. According to this version the Vhangona Kingdom had +-145 chiefdoms and a King (Thovhele). It is said that the Kingdom was divided into seven districts: • Dzanani • Mbilwi • Tswime • Tshiendeulu • Tshakhuma • Tshamanyatsha and • Thulamela. These districts were ruled by District Chiefs (Mahosi): • Neswongozwi/Neluvuvhu (Dzanani) • Nembilwi (Mbilwi) • Netswime (Tswime) • Netshiendeulu (Tshiendeulu) 3 • Netshakhuma (Tshakhuma) • Netshamanyatsha (Tshamanyantsha) and • Makhahani (Thulamela). Each district had Vhamusanda (Junior Chiefs) who paid tribute to Mahosi. This tradition states that one of the Vhangona Kings was King Shiriyadenga whose royal kraal was at Mapungubwe. It is not clear if this Shiriyadenga is the same Shiriyedenga of the Sanga dynasty, a Karanga-Rozvi branch. The Sanga dynasty, in Zimbabwe’s eastern highlands, was founded by Chiphaphami Shiriyedenga who died in 1672. Could it be that at one point the Karanga-Rozvi Empire extended beyond the Vhembe (Limpopo) River, and that the Vhangona, though not Karanga speaking, were at one point under Karanga-Rodzvi rule? The other version of Vhangona history disputes that the Vhangona were ever united under one chief or King. It says that the Vhangona had different independent chiefdoms and that the Vhangona chief of Nzhelele valley was Tshidziwelele of the Mudau clan. What is clear, however, is that the Vhatwanamba, who were of Karanga-Rodzvi origin, conquered Vhangona clans who lived in Mapungubwe, Musina, Ha-Tshivhula, Ha-Lishivha, HaMatshete, Ha-Mulambwane, and Ha-Madzhie (the areas of Ha-Tshivhula, Ha-Lishivha, HaMatshete, and Ha-Mulambwane are known today as Alldays and Waterpoort). Mapungubwe was the center of a kingdom with about 5000 people living at its center. Mapungubwe as a trade center lasted between 1030 and 1290 AD. The people of Mapungubwe mined and smelted copper, iron and gold, spun cotton, made glass and ceramics, grew millet and sorghum, and tended cattle, goats and sheep. The people of Mapungubwe had a sophisticated knowledge of the stars, and astronomy played a major role not only in their tradition and culture, but also in their day-to-day lives. Mapungubwe traded with ancient Ethiopia through the ports of Adulis on the Red Sea and the ports of Raphta (now Quelimani) and Zafara (now Sofala) in Mozambique.

4. Mapungubwe predates the settlements at Great Zimbabwe, Thulamela and Dzata. It is believed that that people left Mapungubwe for Great Zimbabwe because Great Zimbabwe was judged to have a more suitable climate.


Thovhele (King) rules a kingdom, and has a number of Mahosi (Senior Chiefs) paying tribute to him. A Khosi (Senior Chief) rules a chiefdom which is usually made of more than 2 villages. Each village is ruled by Vhamusanda (Junior Chief). Vhamusanda can appoint Mukoma to be his/her Personal Assistant. A Mukoma does not have to be of royal blood, and is appointed at Vhamusanda’s discretion to be the eye and ear of Vhamusanda.

In the 17th century a powerful Karanga-Rodzvi clan called Singo, migrated south from north of the Vhembe River (Limpopo). Oral history has it that the Singo came from the Great Lakes in Central Africa (present day DRC, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania). But written accounts suggest that the Singo were Karangas who broke away from the Changamire Rozvi. The Singo crossed the Vhembe River and settled in Venda. The Singo conquest subjected certain Vhangona clans to a second wave of Karanga-Rozvi conquest since some areas had already been conquered by Vhatwanamba, Vhatavhatsindi, Vhanyai, and Vhalembethu. However, Vhatwanamba, Vhatavhatsindi, Vhanyai, and Vhalembethu did not seek to impose their rule over all Vhangona. They only occupied certain areas. Vhatavhatsindi had settled in Thengwe, Tshiheni, and Ha-Mabila. Vhatwanamba had settled in Mapungubwe, Musina, HaTshivhula, Ha-Madzhie, Ha-Matshete, Ha-Mulambwane, and Ha-Lishivha. Vhanzhelele/Vhalembethu and Vhanyai had settled at Ha-Mutele, and Thulamela. It is not clear where the name Venda came from. One version states that when the Singo settled in the land of Vhangona they fell in love with the landscape and the environment and called the place Venda, meaning pleasant place. Another version states that the Vhangona referred to all Karanga-Rodzvi clans that settled in their land as Vhabva-nnda (outsiders). This was later corrupted to Vhavenda, and the area they occupied was named Venda. The third version states that Venda was the name of a Vhangona king and that his people were known as Vhavenda (Venda’s subjects). The Singo subjugated all the clans in Venda. All clans were fused these groups with the Singo build the Vhavenda nation and a powerful kingdom called Venda Kingdom (also known as Land of Legend). Venda was later settled by Vhalaudzi who, like the Singo, originated from Zimbabwe and were related to the Singo. Although scattered all over Venda, Vhalaudzi chiefs became rulers of Ha-Masia (Masia), Ha-Mutsha (Mugivhi), Tshimbupfe (Netshimbupfe), Tshivhulani (Netshivhulani), Phawe and Vhulorwa (Maphaha), and Tshisahulu (Makumbane). According to Vhavenda oral tradition, the Singo Kings had a magic drum known as Ngomalungundu. This was a sacred drum of Mwali (Mwari), the Great God of the Singo. Ngomalungundu was the spear and shield of the Singo. Their king is believed to have worked miracles with this drum which had magic and killing powers. In fear of Ngomalungundu, other groupings surrendered to or fled from the Singo killing powers. Through conquest the Vhangona came to revere and fear this greatest musical instrument. They regarded this drum as the Voice of their Great God, Raluvhimba, the Lord of all their ancestor spirits, the instrument of the Royal Ancestral spirits. By the late 19th century Vhavenda had to come to think of Raluvhimba and Mwali as interchangeable names for the same deity, although they had once been separate.

6 . The title for a Vhangona king was Thovhele while the Singo’s title for king was Mambo. These titles were also used interchangeably, although the surviving one is Thovhele. The Singo and all the other clans that conquered Venda were, with time, absorbed culturally and linguistically by Vhangona and Vhambedzi clans, the clans they conquered. The conquerors’ descendants owe much of their present identity to the earlier inhabitants of Venda, Vhangona and Vhambedzi. It is believed that about 85% of present day Tshivenda words and vocabulary come from the original Tshingona. But the conquerors also transmitted a great number of Karanga traits. The Singo did not change place names. The majority of Venda place names that exist today existed before the Singo conquest. The Singo kept the Changamire title of Chikurawadyembeuwu, altering it to Vele-la-mbeu. They also converted Mwari’s praise name, Sororezhou, into a title, Thohoyandou. Today it is very difficult to find anybody willing to admit that they are the descendants of Vhangona. This is due to the fact that the conquerors despised Vhangona and they labelled them sorcerers. It was, therefore, an embarrassment to claim Ngona heritage, and almost everybody started identifying themselves as a Muvenda. But the majority of Vhavenda are Vhangona. Most people with Ngona heritage can be identified by their clan names and surnames which start with the prefix “Ne” (like Nevondo, Nenzhelele, Nedzanani, Nevhutalu, Nemadzivhanani, Neluvhola, Neluonde, Netshitenzhe, Nengwekhulu, Netsianda etc), and “Ra” (like Ratshikuni, Raphalalani, Ramavu, Rambau, Ramaphosa, etc). The prefix “Ne” simply means ruler/ owner of. For example, Neluvhola means the ruler/owner of Luvhola. The prefix “Ra” means father of. For example, Ramaphosa means Maphosa’s father. The majority of Venda surnames start with “Ne” or “Ra”.

7. The Vhangona traditional leaders welcomed the conquerors and paid tribute to them. Different Vhangona traditional leaders continued to exercise authority over their areas of jurisdiction. They were, however, now paying tribute to a Singo King. THE SINGO HISTORY There are different versions of the Singo oral history. VERSION 1 The first version has it that Tshilume (Ratshilumela) led the Singo from Central Africa. According to this version, Tshilume was succeeded by Hwami. Hwami was succeeded by his grandson Dimbanyika. According to this tradition, Dimbanyika is the one who crossed the Vhembe River and settled in the Nzhelele valley. Dimbanyika is also the one who started the process of subjugating all the groups they found in Venda. He is, therefore, regarded as the first King of the various clans that were fused to form the Vhavenda nation. Dimbanyika was succeeded by his son Bele who was given the title of Bele-la-Mambo (hyena of the King/Lord). King Bele was later killed by his Prime Minister, Tshishonga, after the two had a disagreement. The Kingdom split into two for a while, but Tshishonga repented and installed Dyambeu, Bele’s younger brother, as the new king of the nation. According to this version, King Dyambeu divided the kingdom into sections that were ruled by his sons. He did this to entrench and consolidate his hegemony over the entire nation. His sons were Ravhura, Raluswielo (Tshivhase), Rambuda and Phophi/Masindi (Thohoyandou). Ravhura was sent to Makonde while Raluswielo was sent to Dopeni. The Chief Priest, Gole Mphaphuli, settled at Tshitomboni and later ruled the land stretching from Mbilwi to Madzivhanombe (present day Giyani) and Phafula (Phafuri). Gole was given the responsibility of protecting the kingdom from invaders from the south-east.

8 King Dyambeu died and the Prime Minister, from the Vhandalamo house, installed Dyambeu’s youngest son, Masindi, as the new king of the nation. He was given the title of Thohoyandou (Head of Elephant). VERSION 2 The second version states that the first Singo leader was Mutumbukavhathu and that he stayed in Victoria, Zimbabwe. He left Victoria and settled in present day Bulawayo. His son was Bele-la-Mambo. Bele-la-Mambo was succeeded by Tindima. Tindima was succeeded by Dimbanyika who was succeeded by Dyambeu. Dyambeu was succeeded by Masindi, who was given the title of Thohoyandou. KING THOHOYANDOU Thohoyandou was a great king who expanded the Vhavenda Kingdom. Data gathered by the Dutch at Delagoa Bay between 1723 and 1730 indicate that during Thohoyandou’s time the Vhavenda Kingdom stretched from Vhembe river (Limpopo) in the north to Crocodile river in the south. This kingdom included people who were not Venda speaking. The Karanga of Zimbabwe were subject to him and the Bapedi chiefs recognised him as their sovereign. The Singo domination of Venda was entrenched during King Thohoyandou’s rule. The Ramabulana house occupied the south-western flank of Venda with a base at Tshirululuni (present day Makhado town). The Ravhura house occupied the Mutale valley with a base at Makonde. The Tshivhase house occupied the south-eastern flanks with its base at Dopeni. King Thohoyandou was the last king of a united Venda.


9 : The Singo tradition has it that King Thohoyandou disappeared without trace and it was believed that he went back to Vhukalanga (Zimbabwe). After King Thohoyandou’s disappearance, one of the sources of conflict within the Vhavenda finally led to the division and disintegration of the Vhavenda kingdom. This was rivalry within the royal family over succession to the throne. After the death of a King or chief, Vhavenda were prone to factionalism. This often resulted in a proliferation of independent chiefdoms and violent confrontations. The rivalry that followed King Thohoyandou’s death led to the division of the Venda kingdom into three different kingdoms and numerous independent chiefdoms. The three kingdoms were Ramabulana with its base at Tshirululuni (present day Makhado town), Tshivhase with its base at Dopeni and later Phiphidi, and Ravhura with its base at Makonde. The Mphaphuli and Rambuda houses later split from the Tshivhase house and founded their own dynasties with their bases at Tshitomboni and Dzimauli respectively. Historians believe that the geography of Venda was not in favour of unity and that the temptation for Ravhura and Tshivhase houses to convert autonomy into independence must have been too strong. The Singo rulers had tried to counterbalance the temptation by favouring certain houses that could not succeed to the supreme title, such as the Ndalamo and Mphaphuli. Thohoyandou’s sons were Mandiwana, Munzhedzi, and Ratombo. Munzhedzi became the new king of Ha-Ramabulana and ruled from Tshirululuni. Mandiwana settled in the Nzhelele valley, while Ratombo settled at Ha-Ratombo in the Luvuvhu valley. Both Mandiwana and Ratombo paid tribute to their brother, Munzhedzi. Raluswielo, Thohoyandou’s brother, also known as Tshivhasa Midiyavhathu, established a dynasty known as Ha-Tshivhasa. It is not clear when the Mphaphuli house split from the Tshivhase house. It is, however, important to mention that the Mphaphulis dispute that they were once ruled by the Tshivhases, while the Tshivhases insist that the Mphaphulis used to herd their cattle. Ravhura established his dynasty in the Mutale valley with its base at Makonde. It is, however, not clear whether the Vhandalamo of Ha-Tshikundamalema and Vhalembethu of Ha-Mutele and Thulamela were under Ravhura. Today Makonde is part of Ha-Tshivhasa. VENDA HOMELAND The Native Affairs Act, No.23 of 1920 provided for the establishment of

It is under this background that Our fore father only known as Tshiguvho- Netsianda were among the descendants of Vhangona, who had settled on the mountainous valley of Tsianda Village . Oral traditions has it that Tshiguvho travelled North in search of greener pastures leaving his brothers and settled along the Vhembe river basin (Zhovhe)

With him was his wife believed to be from VHAHA MUTELE.

Unknown to us is weather he had Children already or they were born here

and the only logical timeline of Tshiguvho Migration would be around mid 18:50s

Tshiguvho Tshanyamapapa Tsholingana mune watsho, others say Tshiguvho

Tshafungiso Ndi Dzina Lopfumbaho la Mukalaha Vho Tshiguvho.

He is believed to have been a follower of Venda tradition , My Source ( Philiph Singale)

Always said he was medium build man who was always by his drum, He would dance

to the drum beat vhatshiko renda>>>>>>>More to follow..

Mapungubwe is the first national park to be dedicated to a uniquely African moment one which celebrates a history that was once denied or dismissed. But it&rsquos about more than just politics.

Mapungubwe is proving to be popular because it is a fantastic place to visit. The scenery is unusual and distinctive. The rest camps are outstanding. And the park also contains the three important archaeological sites of Mapungubwe Hill, K2 and Schroda.

Mapungubwe Institute: Tribute to Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

The attribute of great leadership is the ability at once to follow and to inspire. Its attendant punishment is the loss of the private self: becoming, often by default and sometimes by design, common property.

Some glide in comfort at this challenge of leadership. They ride the wave in perfect harmony with the tide. They indulge themselves in the glory of power and authority. Thus myths are created around them.

Others suffer the discomfort of pretence. Thus they seek artificially to create their own myths.

Individual styles of leadership over millennia have reflected the tricky balance between these extremes. Where perfect balance in the middle is attained, a good leader emerges, able to take a nation to new heights but not necessarily remarkable in the public consciousness as &ldquoa maker of history&rdquo.

The mark of greatness is imbalance, imperfection and unique remarkability.

The 20th Century has spawned many leaders, across political divides, who will remain household names deep into future millennia. Variously, they straddled the extremes of comfort and discomfort in leadership, and by commission or omission, myths emerged around them. Vladimir Lenin, Sir Winston Churchill, Franklin Roosevelt, Mao Ze Dong, Mahatma Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh, Che Guevara, Nkwame Nkrumah, JF Kennedy, Abdel Nasser and Martin Luther King stand out among them.

Where does Nelson Mandela fit among all these? As with a few of them, he was revered and yet not feared. He was loved and adored, at times and uniquely, precisely for his weaknesses.

The myth endured to the very end and by dint of mass adulation, Nelson Mandela died a Saint in ripe old age.

With him, it was not what could have been, nor what initially was, but what endured to the very end: that imposing young man of peasant stock that petulant and defiant activist in whom the African National Congress&rsquo (ANC) collective of young leaders of the 1940s saw qualities of leadership they honed in that famous prisoner wallowing in the fortunate glory of a misfortune that negotiator and reconciler that manager of a vexed transition and that retiree held in even greater awe &hellip

Some of us had agonised about the implications, for a public figure, of all the terrible things that come with old age: the fluffed lines, the anecdotes repeated word for word to the same audience, the retreating short-term memory, the danger of megalomania &ndash all legendary stuff among those who cling to public office, especially in old age.

And so we come back to the pensioner&rsquos words in June 2004, when he finally somewhat "retired from semi-retirement": &ldquo&hellip I had so little opportunity for reading, thinking and quiet reflection after my release.&rdquo More for what was not said, that beyond a certain line, the ability to satisfy the call of public duty does wane, and Mandela himself recognised this and sought quiet solitude in the comfort, at last, of private space!

It would be a gross oversimplification to assert that glorious moments of history spawn leaders of good hue and moments in which the masses descend into a trance of self-destruction give birth to tyrants.

Leaders who straddle both these extremes of mass consciousness and display a quality that gives meaning to the word, &ldquohumanity&rdquo, are bound to stand head and shoulders above their peers.

Nelson Mandela lived through moments that lent themselves to mass glory and mass hysteria: for instance, the triumph of 1994 on the one hand and on the other, Sharpeville, Soweto and Boipatong, which lent themselves to the temptation: let mass slaughter beget mass slaughter!

At each turn, greatness shone through. It spoke as much to fastidiousness about the outcome as to the methods used to achieve it.

Mandela walked the era of greats, so created by the circumstances of history: the commanders in a World War, the guerrilla leaders in liberation struggles, the symbols of national independence, the Cold Warriors &hellip

But if history does make leaders, how then do we explain the fact that none of these circumstances quite expressed themselves in any pronounced form in the South African struggle and in Mandela&rsquos life?

Perhaps it is from the confluence of the things humane that the South African struggle itself spawned or borrowed &ndash such as non-racialism, non-sexism, concern for the totality of the human condition, environmental issues and so on &ndash that Mandela derived his unassailable greatness. These are the things his people strive to represent things his movement has championed things that the world embraces as it struggles to discover its humanity.

He stands out as having been the last to bury the corpse of European colonial domination in Africa the first to tower the world during geo-political realignments that characterised the end of the Cold War the symbol of an emergent democratic and inclusive statehood in an era of rising social movements a global icon in an epoch of globalisation.

Prose has been penned and dirges composed about his role in reconciling a divided nation. Dare we not pose the question, though, whether this has not been remoulded and oversimplified into the fluff of magic and miracle? For contained in the attributes he embedded in the South African psyche were the Gandhian quality for simple humaneness the Leninist tact in managing a revolutionary moment of political authority changing hands and a Kennedian touch in making it look so eminently reasonable. And lest we forget, to him it was solemn duty to couple "nation-building and reconciliation" with "reconstruction and development".

Mandela was feted by Kings and Queens. Presidents, Prime Ministers and Executives of conglomerates valued the content of exchanges with him as much as the halo of personal association. Yet what under-girded the reverence of the powerful was the outpouring of adulation by ordinary people &ndash young and old, men and women, black and white in all countries of the world &ndash to whom he seemed by his mere presence to answer the question: what is life all about!

To what extent the nebulous tentativeness of the cause of social justice in the era of globalisation impacted on his portrayal and perhaps his own thinking, is a matter of conjecture.

But what we can say with confidence is that Mandela was a representative of a humane order yet to be born and he in turn grew in stature by personally embracing that cause to which the 21st Century cannot but dedicate itself, including the promotion of children&rsquos true happiness and the fight against HIV and AIDS. He is the archetypical symbol of unfinished business, a child of the 20th Century and a grandfather of the 21st.

Perhaps Mandela was a born leader. Was he born to be a good leader, though?

It was both his character and the vagaries of fate that conspired to bequeath to our society and to the world the icon. In his youth, he drank more gustily than most from the tales of woe and heroism of oral history and missionary education. He escaped the drudgery of rural life in search of life&rsquos adventures in the urban metropolis.

For his leadership qualities, he could easily have landed at the head of the notorious criminal gangs of Alexandra township or cowering pitifully as a stooge in apartheid&rsquos Bantustan toy governments. But upbringing and fate placed him in the socially-conscious and passionate group of the young Walter Sisulu, Oliver Tambo, Anton Lembede, Yusuf Dadoo, Lillian Ngoyi, Ashby P Mda, Bram Fischer, Helen Joseph and others.

These leaders saw in Mandela that fine blend of ambition, empathy for the underdog, pride, arrogance, magnetism and discipline. Mandela has mused about how the patience and intellectualism of the Sisulus and Tambos sometimes irritated him. From their perspective, what they saw in him was the ability to translate the fine art of theory into practical programmes for national emancipation.

In essence, he was a great leader because he was a great follower. It does not diminish his stature to reveal that the greatest of his speeches, including at the Rivonia Trial, on the day of his release in 1990, the Presidential inauguration in 1994 and subsequent opening of the first democratic Parliament, the 1994 OAU Summit, the Joint Houses of Parliament of the UK in 1996, and the US Congress in 1994, were the product of collective effort.

And yet you had to listen to him speak ex tempore about such issues of the heart as what the struggle meant to him and his family, how he decided to initiate negotiations from his prison cell and on the meaning of personal integrity, that tears would easily roll down your cheeks.

Among the seminal spontaneous ones is his speech live on TV at the CODESA talks in 1991, when he decided to respond in very strong terms to a chiding by then-President FW de Klerk on the issue of armed struggle. Spontaneous mass celebrations erupted in Soweto and townships across the country immediately after the speech. In the order of things, many identify that moment as the tipping of psychological self-assertion in mass consciousness among Black South Africans, just as the speech on Chris Hani&rsquos assassination was the tipping of sovereign authority. And, in both instances, Mandela knew this.

If some of his peers in the leadership of the ANC were theoreticians and strategists, Mandela was a tactician par excellence. He knew how to gauge and respond to the mood of the people and to important turning points in history, but to do so in a responsible fashion.

If his comrades were experts in outlining broad responses to particular circumstances, he was the paragon of organisation. The ANC street-level organisational M-Plan of the 1950s, to quote one example, bore the hallmarks of Mandela the organiser.

Then there is his legendary stoicism, about which reams have been written.

A minor personal experience was an instance on a trip from Durban to Pretoria sometime in 1994, when the Presidential plane suddenly lost pressure and the oxygen masks popped out. The pilots announced their assurances about everything being under control, that we had to fly low, and so on and so on.

Most of us went ashen and all kinds of images started to float in our heads about life and death. Mandela was his inscrutable self, continuing with a conversation that, gripped by terror, the few of us seating in the front seats could hear but nary a word of which we can today remember.

It is because of a combination of all these attributes that, in this era of exalted public relations and cultivation of personal image, Mandela comfortably and consistently performed with distinction, with virtually no professional help.

If there is anything that marks the measure of Mandela&rsquos genius, it was his mastery of human relations. Names of acquaintances and distant associates rolled off his lips with ease. His expression of affection and empathy were truly genuine. From him, one felt the sense of being valued and the confidence of valuing oneself.

In this regard, he was a master-politician. He knew what pleases individuals and communities and how to knead that into positive energy. He could as easily help salve a troubled conscience as he would rebuke when the need arose. And when his anger boiled over, he could inflict pain with devastating effect.

Part of the public persona, it is true, was a product of his own self-discipline. He was quick to arrest within himself the folly of destructive fury. That he hardly put a foot wrong was a product as much of his ability to take collective advice, as it was a consequence of careful self-grooming. He was conscious of the qualities that made him tower above the rest, and he systematically strove to satisfy public expectations.

Greatness in leadership contains within it the punishment of isolation. The comfort of an ear to listen and a shoulder to unload private feelings stand any individual, no matter how great, in good stead. Thus leaders such as these suffer personal pain more than others because the public and the private so fuse that the façade of calm has to be maintained even in absolutely stressful circumstances.

The tragedy of his personal life aside, what we can celebrate is that he found even more happiness in his last years, and he savoured it to the full. Above all, there was the community &ndash the people of South Africa and the ANC &ndash which nurtured him, because it knew he had become common property, the symbol of its very self.

And so the body of staid gait and mien lies motionless, still towering in the imagery but prostrate and hapless in the stillness of deathly silence. It exudes the permanent injunction for us to do good, to be honest, to be ethical &hellip in the knowledge that, in his own words, saints are sinners who keep trying.

By dint of circumstance, Nelson Mandela fought no major wars. By design of principle, he enjoyed no exaltations of a conqueror. But there, in the humane bequest of unfinished business for a new century resides the greatness of Madiba. His fame and power are founded on their own strength, the strength of humanity searching for a better life.

Behold, a Black Star has risen, and it continues to rise. And a continent can, at last, once more shed its own light.

Grade 6 - Term 1: Kingdoms of southern Africa: Mapungubwe, Thulamela and Great Zimbabwe

This topic describes the history of the southern African kingdoms of Mapungubwe, Thulamela and Great Zimbabwe with a special look at how they were organised and the role played by cattle, gold and ivory in these societies.

During the early days of the last millennium several great Iron Age kingdoms existed in southern Africa. Thulamela, Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe were all established as centres of agriculture, but developed into trading nations, exchanging goods with Arab and Portuguese merchants through East African harbours. Cattle, ivory and gold were important trading goods and key to the survival of these kingdoms.

We are first going to examine what an ‘Iron Age Kingdom’ is. We will then look at each of the three Kingdoms (Thulamela, Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe) individually.

Note: Some grade 6 sections are under construction and still link to old content. Also note, there may be minor changes to the curriculum from year to year, teachers always check with your Curriculum Advisor and students, check with your teacher.

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Zuma sacked

2005 June - President Mbeki sacks his deputy, Jacob Zuma, in the aftermath of a corruption case.

2005 August - Around 100,000 gold miners strike over pay, bringing the industry to a standstill.

2006 May - Former deputy president Jacob Zuma is acquitted of rape charges by the High Court in Johannesburg. He is reinstated as deputy leader of the governing African National Congress.

2006 June - Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits and promises to limit clothing exports to help South Africa's ailing textile industry.

2006 September - Corruption charges against former deputy president Zuma are dismissed, boosting his bid for the presidency.

2006 December - South Africa becomes the first African country, and the fifth in the world, to allow same-sex unions.

2007 April - President Mbeki, often accused of turning a blind eye to crime, urges South Africans to join forces to bring rapists, drug dealers and corrupt officials to justice.

2007 May - Cape Town mayor Helen Zille is elected as new leader of the main opposition Democratic Alliance (DA).

Wrapping up

Mapungubwe is more than a plateau in a far corner of South Africa. It is the first royal city of international reach within the borders of the nation. At present, a large fraction of the visitors to Mapungubwe are domestic visitors. This may reflect that several groups of South African perceive themselves to be the descendants of this civilization. It is my hope, though, that more of the international community comes to see this civilization as one of importance. While the archaeological site is quite a distance from the main tourist districts of South Africa, the museum of its artifacts is in the heart of Pretoria, well within reach of many guests of this country. I look forward to seeing it myself!

Watch the video: How Mandela Changed South Africa. From Prison To President. Timeline (May 2022).