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Jessica Redhead

Jessica Redhead

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10 Actresses Who Are Basically Nude For The Entire Movie

Another one that shouldn't be confused with its more recent namesake - although that would make for some unusual family viewing - Up! was the penultimate feature film from the legendary Russ Meyer, a filmmaker revered as an auteur by some, and reviled as a pornographer by others. Still, either way you look at it, no one would deny the key unifying element across Meyer's filmography is his fixation on women with very large breasts - and Kitten Natividad is pretty much the perfect embodiment (pun sort-of intended?) of Meyer's ideal.

Boasting a plot (co-written by Roger Ebert) that's too mind-blowingly bizarre to summarise, and a heavier emphasis on full nudity and graphic sex scenes than had always been typical of his films, Up! cast Natividad as a Greek Chorus, a narrator attempting to relay the incomprehensible plot via a series of equally incomprehensible monologues (all of which were overdubbed by an English actress). But just to make sure she never loses your attention, the director never lets her wear anything more than a pair of knee-length leather boots.

Ben Bussey hasn&apost written a bio just yet, but if they had. it would appear here.

67 Of The Most Legendary Redheads Of All Time

We definitely don't need an excuse to celebrate the awesomeness of red hair -- but just in case we do, today is the day. Nov. 5 is National Love Your Red Hair Day.

According to NationalDayCalendar.com, the holiday was created this year to "empower redheads to feel confident, look amazing and rock their beauty" and encourage people to share photos of their hair on social media using the hashtag #LoveYourRedHairDay. It's a noble cause -- and one that everyone can get behind, whether you have red hair or not.

Full disclosure: our love for gingers runs deep. Real-life redheads like Julianne Moore and Nicole Kidman make us want to run to the salon and go crimson. And we're head-over-heels for fictitious reds like Annie, The Little Mermaid and our all-time favorite, Anne Shirley aka "Anne of Green Gables."

Not only is their fiery hair swoon-worthy, but these folks have got the type of sass, success, and self-confidence to back up their standout looks. While they might not all be natural-born redheads, we still appreciate their ability to pull off a red-hot mane.

So, in celebration of National Love Your Red Hair Day we've rounded up 67 famous redheads that we absolutely adore. Check 'em out and let us know if we've missed anyone in the comments section below.

Born on April 28, 1981, in Pomona, California, Jessica Alba comes from a diverse background. Her father is Mexican-American and her mother has Danish and French roots. As the daughter of a member of the U.S. Air Force, she moved around a lot while growing up, living in California, Mississippi and Texas, before settling back in California.

Early Career: &aposCamp Nowhere&apos to &aposFlipper&apos

Alba began studying acting in her early teens and had an agent by the age of 12. Netting her first film role, she appeared in the 1994 comedy Camp Nowhere. She also found work as a model and did some commercials. Around this time, Alba landed a recurring role on The Secret World of Alex Mack, a popular tween comedy about a girl who develops special powers. She also took to the water with a short-lived remake of the classic aquatic adventure series Flipper, which was filmed in Australia.

Breakthrough Role on &aposDark Angel&apos

After a string of guest appearances, Alba was given the leading role in the science-fiction series Dark Angel. The show was created by director James Cameron and premiered in the fall of 2000. She played Max Guevera, a genetically modified young woman who had escaped from a genetics research project that used children as test subjects.

Set in 2019 in a post-apocalyptic Seattle, the series featured storylines about her search for others from the project as well as the efforts of the government to recapture her. Her character worked with a journalist named Logan Cale, played by Michael Weatherly. Off-screen, Alba and Weatherly developed a personal relationship and were engaged for a time.

While the series earned some critical acclaim, Dark Angel only lasted for two seasons.

&aposHoney,&apos &aposSin City,&apos &aposFantastic Four&apos

Alba soon appeared on the big screen in Honey (2003), playing a hip-hop dancer and choreographer. Not a critical success, it was popular with teen audiences. She then played a different type of dancer in Sin City (2005) — a stripper with book smarts. Around this time, Alba brought a comic book heroine to life in Fantastic Four (2005). She played Sue Storm, one of the four astronauts who gain unusual powers after being exposed to cosmic rays. Reprising her role, she also starred in the 2007 sequel, 4: Rise of the Silver Surfer.

&aposInto the Blue,&apos &aposGood Luck Chuck,&apos &aposThe Eye,&apos &aposThe Love Guru&apos

Taking on another adventurous part, Alba co-starred in Into the Blue (2005) with Paul Walker and Scott Caan, as a diver who gets into trouble after discovering a sunken plane. In Good Luck Chuck (2007), Alba tried her hand at romantic comedy, opposite Dane Cook. Neither effort fared well with critics nor attracted much of an audience. Continuing to branch out, Alba starred in The Eye (2008), a remake of a Japanese horror film. She played a musician who receives an eye transplant, which produces some unwanted side effects. Returning to comedy, Alba landed a part in the Mike Myers film The Love Guru (2008).

&aposMachete,&apos &aposSpy Kids 4,&apos &aposThe Spoils of Babylon&apos

The actress remained busy, though many of her roles came as part of an ensemble cast or in lesser-known flicks. She continued to collaborate with Sin City co-director Robert Rodriguez, appearing in his films Machete (2010), Spy Kids 4: All the Time in the World (2011) and Sin City: A Dame to Kill For (2014). Alba also surfaced in the comedic miniseries The Spoils of Babylon, which aired on IFC in early 2014.

&aposMechanic: Resurrection,&apos &aposL.A.&aposs Finest&apos

Alba went on to star in the action-comedy Barely Lethal (2015), the spooky The Veil (2016) and the thriller Mechanic: Resurrection (2016), though only the last made any noise at the box office. She then made a long-awaited return to television in 2019 with L.A.&aposs Finest, co-starring with Gabrielle Union in this offshoot of the Bad Boys films.  

There was so much, so many.

"What do I do with all of this?"

Joy Redhead Gilchrist left behind two recipe card boxes and seven folders containing her favorite recipies, including recipes from her Grandmother, Mother, their friends and many friends of hers.
Handwritten, typewritten, from newspapers and magazines, printed from the internet.
She had spent a lot of time getting them all organized for those who may have an interest.
They all were scanned and assembled in an Adobe Acrobat file (PDF).
Information on the structure of this document can be found on the Introduction page of it.
As it works with both desktop and mobile versions of Acrobat Reader the desktop version is recommended.


A merkin is a pubic wig. Merkins were originally worn by sex workers after shaving their mons pubis, and are now used as decorative items, erotic devices, or in films, by both men and women.

The Oxford Companion to the Body dates the origin of the pubic wig to the 1450s. According to the publication, women would shave their pubic hair for personal hygiene and to combat pubic lice. They would then don a merkin. Also, sex workers would wear a merkin to cover up signs of disease, such as syphilis. [1] [2]

The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first written use of the term to 1617. The word probably originated from malkin, [3] [4] a derogatory term for a lower-class young woman, or from Marykin, a pet form of the female given name Mary. [4]

In Hollywood filmmaking, merkins can be worn by actors and actresses to avoid inadvertent exposure of the genitalia during nude or semi-nude scenes. The presence of the merkin protects the actor from inadvertently performing "full-frontal" nudity – some contracts specifically require that nipples and genitals be covered in some way – which can help ensure that the film achieves a less restrictive MPAA rating. [5]

A merkin may also be used when the actor or actress has less pubic hair than is required, as in the nude dancing extras in The Bank Job. Amy Landecker wore a merkin in A Serious Man (2009) for a nude sunbathing scene bikini waxing was neither common or fashionable in 1967 when the film is set. [6] [7]

An Overview of Red Hair’s History

Throughout history, red hair has been associated with evil vampires, witches and outsiders were traditionally always portrayed with red hair. There are numerous reasons for this, one being that actually having red hair is incredibly rare (less than 2%, remember?), and society is generally suspicious about anything ‘different’, particularly when it is so very noticeable and eye-catching. Some scholars also trace this fear/dislike of red hair back to the belief that Judas, who betrayed Jesus in the Bible, had red hair. Culturally, anyone with red hair has often been assumed to have a hot temper and tempestuous personality.

And, yet, not every society had negative views of red hair in Italy and Greece, it was historically viewed as very popular – perhaps due to its rarity in these parts of the world. As we look through history, we find that henna has also been used since ancient times to create red hair and was very popular in Ancient Egypt and in the Middle East. In Elizabethan England, red hair was very popular, owing to Elizabeth I’s natural red hair, and many men and women colored their hair red to show loyalty. In the 16th century, the popularity of Tiziano Vecelli, as he was known in English, Titian’s art started a trend for red hair, too, with Italian women using ingredients, including saffron and rhubarb, to achieve the color.

In Ancient Greek myths, redheads were said to turn into vampires after death, and, during the 16th and 17th centuries, most women who were branded as witches had red hair. Somewhere around 45,000 red-haired women are estimated to have been burned as witches, during the trials, which is a considerable portion of the population. To reiterate, that was likely due to the fact that since having red hair is so rare, you stand out from the crowd, and are, therefore, evil. Even before the witch trials, 15th-century artwork portrayed witches with red hair.



Northern and Western Europe

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe [4] it is centred around populations in the British Isles and is particularly associated with the Celtic nations. [4]

Ireland has the highest number of red-haired people per capita in the world with the percentage of those with red hair at around 10%. [5]

Great Britain also has a high percentage of people with red hair. In Scotland around 6% of the population has red hair with the highest concentration of red head carriers in the world found in Edinburgh, making it the red head capital of the world. [6] [7] In 1907, the largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%. [8] A 1956 study of hair colour among British Army recruits also found high levels of red hair in Wales and in the Scottish border counties of England. [fn 1] [9]

Eastern and Southern Europe

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country. [10] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population. [10] Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga Region in Russia to be "the most red-headed men in the world". [11] The Volga region still has one of the highest percentages of redheaded people. [12]

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations. [13] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair. [14] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards. [15] In European culture, before the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish. [16] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art. [17] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia. [18]

North Africa and Mediterranean

The Berber populations of Morocco [19] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria, [20] [21] [22] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I, founding emir of Córdoba, also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Asia (all regions)

In Asia, red hair can be found among some peoples of Afghan, [23] [24] Arab, Iranian, Mongolian, Turkic, Miao and Hmong descent.

Ancient human remains with red and reddish-brown hair have been discovered in various parts of Asia including the Tarim mummies of Xinjiang, China. [25] Several preserved samples of human hair have been obtained from an Iron Age cemetery in Khakassia, South Siberia. Many of the hair samples appear red in color, and one skull from the cemetery had a preserved red moustache. [26]

In the Book of Wei, Chinese author Wei Shou notes that Liu Yuan was over 6 feet tall and had red strain on his long beard. [27]

There are other examples of red hair among early Turkic people. Muqan Qaghan, the third Qaghan of the Turkic Khaganate, was said to have red hair and blue eyes. [28]

In Chinese sources, ancient Kyrgyz people were described as fair-skinned, green- or blue-eyed and red-haired people with a mixture of European and East Asian features. [29]

The Kipchak people were a Turkic ethnic group from central Asia who served in the Golden Horde military forces after being conquered by the Mongols. In the Chinese historical document 'Kang mu', the Kipchak people are described as red haired and blue eyed. [30]

The ethnic Miao people of China are recorded with red hair. According to F.M Savina of the Paris Foreign missionary society the appearance of the Miao was pale yellow in their skin complexion, almost white, their hair color often being light or dark brown, sometimes even red or corn-silk blond, and a few of them even have pale blue eyes. [31]

A phenotype study of Hmong People show they are sometimes born with red hair. [32]

Americas, Oceania and Sub-Saharan Africa

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.


Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired. [34] The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it. [35] [36]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC. [37]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership. [38] [39]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant. [2]

Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer. The MC1R variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is difficult or impossible to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun's ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not universal feature of red-haired people.

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not sufficient, for red hair production. [40]


The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype. [41] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair. [42] [43] There are 8 genetic differences associated with red hair color. [44]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.



Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin. [45] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm pale skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift. [41]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago. [46] [47]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans. [48]

Extinction hoax

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed "geneticists", said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future. [49] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the "Oxford Hair Foundation". However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states "while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn't going away". [50]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive allele (variant of a gene), the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future. [50]


Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability. [51] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation. [52]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person's health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. [53] [54]

Pain tolerance and injury

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels), [55] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain. [56] [57] [58]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic. [59] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men. [60] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide. [58] However, a later study of 468 healthy adult patients found no significant difference in recovery times, pain scores or quality of recovery in those with red compared with dark hair in either men or women. [61]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH. [62] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones. [62] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications. [63] [64] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising. [64]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

  • In cases of severe malnutrition, normally dark human hair may turn red or blonde. The condition, part of a syndrome known as kwashiorkor, is a sign of critical starvation caused chiefly by protein deficiency, and is common during periods of famine.
  • One variety of albinism (Type 3, a.k.a. rufous albinism), sometimes seen in Africans and inhabitants of New Guinea, results in red hair and red-colored skin. [65]
  • Red hair is found on people lacking pro-opiomelanocortin. [65][66]

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

Beliefs about temperament

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that "her temper matches her hair", while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that "People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair."

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament. [69] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver's Travels, "A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms," when he writes that: "It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity." Swift goes on to write that "neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe". [70] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of "criminal women" were redheads. [71]

Media, fashion and art

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye. [ citation needed ]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance. [72]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color "Titian" takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli's famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani, [73] and Gustav Klimt. [74]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes story "The Red-Headed League" (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Notable fictional characters with red hair includes Jean Grey, Red Sonja, Mystique, and Poison Ivy. [75]

A book of photographs of red haired people was published in 2020, Gingers by Kieran Dodds (2020). [76]

Prejudice and discrimination against redheads

Medieval beliefs

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk. [77]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum, [78] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

Medieval antisemitism

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution. [16] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art. [17] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, such as the villainous Jewish characters Shylock and Fagin. [79] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia. [18] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as 'golden haired', in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had 'fiery red hair'. [80]

Modern-day discrimination

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote "The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair."

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: "The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, "Look at that boy he's got a bonfire on the top of his head," and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber's, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man." [81]

In British English, the word "ginger" is sometimes used to describe red-headed people (at times in an insulting manner), [82] with terms such as "gingerphobia" [83] and "gingerism" [84] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as "carrot tops" and "carrot heads". (The comedian "Carrot Top" uses this stage name.) "Gingerism" has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads. [84]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for "being ginger". [85] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair [86] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair. [87] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair. [88] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him "just because he had red hair". The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack. [89] A possible fringe theory explaining the historical and modern mistreatment of red-heads supposedly stems from Roman subjugation and consequent persecution of Celtic Nations when arriving in the British Isles.

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. English comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society. [90] The British comedy Bo' Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism. [91] ) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song "Prejudice". [92]

The pejorative use of the word "ginger" and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the "Ginger Kids", "Le Petit Tourette", "It's a Jersey Thing" and "Fatbeard" episodes of South Park.

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair. [93] However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies "Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd," says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons. [94]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed "Blue" or "Bluey". [95] More recently, they have been referred to as "rangas" (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations. [96] The word "rufus" has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people [97] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a 'Kick a Ginger' group, which aimed to establish a "National Kick a Ginger Day" on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes. [98]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Father Christmas, and the words: "Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones" after customers complained the card was offensive. [99]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a "ginger rodent". [100] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was "proud to be ginger". [101] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group. [102]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world's largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination. [103]

Use of term in Singapore and Malaysia

The term ang mo (Chinese: 红毛 pinyin: hóng máo Pe̍h-ōe-jī: âng-mo͘ ) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese, meaning "red-haired", [104] is used in Malaysia and Singapore, although it refers to all white people, never exclusively people with red hair. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui ( 红毛鬼 ) meaning "red-haired devil", similar to the Cantonese term gweilo ("foreign devil"). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people. [105] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable. [106] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times, [107] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Kōmō ( 紅毛 ), which was used during the Edo period (1603–1868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation. [108]

The historic fortress Fort San Domingo in Tamsui, Taiwan was nicknamed ang mo sia (紅毛城).

The name "Rory"

The mainly masculine given name Rory - a name of Goidelic origin, which is an anglicisation of the Irish: Ruairí/Ruaidhrí/Ruaidhrígh/Raidhrígh, Scottish Gaelic: Ruairidh and Manx: Rauree [109] which is common to the Irish, Highland Scots and their diasporas [110] - means "red-haired king", from ruadh ("red-haired" or "rusty") and rígh ("king"). However, present bearers of the name are by no means all red-haired themeselves.

Red hair festivals

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival was held in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands, prior to 2019, when it moved to Tilburg. [111] It attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The international event began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads.

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork since 2011, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions. [112]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK's anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair. [113]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community, [114] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads. [115] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community. [116] The organizers state "The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before." [116]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Redhead Days draws participants from across the United States. [117]

A festival to celebrate the red-haired people is held annually in Izhevsk (Russia), the capital of Udmurtia, since 2004. [118]

MC1R Magazine is a publication for red-haired people worldwide, based in Hamburg, Germany. [119]

Religious and mythological traditions

In ancient Egypt red hair was associated with the deity Set and Ramesses II had it. [120]

In the Iliad, Achilles' hair is described as ksanthēs ( ξανθῆς [121] ), usually translated as blonde, or golden [122] but sometimes as red or tawny. [123] [124] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair. [125]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair. [126]

The Hebrew word usually translated "ruddy" or "reddish-brown" (admoni אדמוני , from the root ADM אדם , see also Adam and Edom) [127] [128] [129] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture [130] [131] and in the works of William Shakespeare, [132] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

15 Celebrities You Didn't Know Were Natural Redheads

Despite redheads only accounting for an estimated 2 percent of the population, Hollywood is teeming with celebrities boasting the hue in natural form.

But with their varied screen roles often requiring them to do everything from gaining or losing weight to adopting a new twang, it's a given that transforming their looks with a splash of hair dye is a common occurrence.

As such, whittling down the list of those who are lucky enough to possess such a feature naturally can be quite the trying task.

However, with May 26 being World Redhead Day, today seems as good a day as any to brush up your knowledge on who's who in the world of red hues.

While she has been seen sporting blonde locks in more recent years, Nicole Kidman spent much of her career showcasing her naturally red curls in all their voluminous glory.

Fellow Australia-raised screen star Isla Fisher is also a member of the club, along with Mean Girls' Lindsay Lohan, Orange Is The New Black's Laura Prepon, and Jurassic World actress Bryce Dallas Howard (she got it from her daddy Ron Howard, no less).

Julianne Moore has switched from her natural fiery red hue on occasion throughout the course of her career, but she's very much a proud redhead.

In fact, the actress revealed to Redbook that she feels such an affinity with her fellow redheads that she religiously makes an effort to greet complete strangers.

She said: "Whenever I see one on the street, I nod or say hello. I feel like there's a redhead collective&mdashyou notice each other."

For Jessica Chastain, it has been a long process in learning to love her distinctive shade of red, after enduring years of ridicule at the hands of other children when she was growing up.

"As a child, I didn't want to be different&mdashI wanted to look the same as everyone else because I didn't want to be singled out," the screen star told Refinery29. "I was ridiculed for having red hair for having freckles.

"But whatever you are ridiculed about that makes you different is what you'll celebrate in the future. If I wanted to dye my hair, I could, but I realized that's who I am, and my differences [make me] special."

In the case of Riverdale star Madelaine Petsch, maintaining her copper-toned tresses is as much about harmony within the family as it is her own pride.

"My hair is very much real," the Washington-born actress told Flare in 2017. "If I dyed my hair, my mother would actually disown me."

Not to be outdone, there are also a number of esteemed actors who are card-carrying members of Club Redhead, including Ewan McGregor, Michael Fassbender, Benedict Cumberbatch, Damian Lewis, Rupert Grint, and Game of Thrones alum Charles Dance.

Of course, over the years we have come to embrace a large number of stars as redheads, only to learn later on down the line that they had a helping hand in the dye department.

Among those are Debra Messing (brunette), Emma Stone (blonde), Julia Roberts (blonde), Brittany Snow (blonde), Amy Adams (blonde), Christina Hendricks (blonde), Sophie Turner (blonde), and Cynthia Nixon (yes, blonde).

Even Lucille Ball, who is arguably the world's most iconic redhead, is said to have been urged by studio giant MGM to dye her blonde locks red&mdashand the rest is trendsetting history.

But whether you've achieved your look through birth or bottle, honorary redhead Debra Messing has a message for you.

"To my fellow redheads&mdashfake or real&mdashI say, embrace it,' she told Today Style in 2018. "I mean, you stand out. There are not a lot of us, so instead of trying to hide, open up."

9 Mysterious Facts About Murder, She Wrote

For 12 seasons and 264 episodes, the small coastal town of Cabot Cove, Maine, was the scene of a murder. And wherever there was a body, Jessica Fletcher wasn’t far behind. The fictional mystery author and amateur sleuth at the heart of the CBS drama Murder, She Wrote was given life by actress Angela Lansbury, who made a name for herself in the theater world and in movies like 1944’s Gaslight and 1962’s The Manchurian Candidate. Though the show was supposed to skew toward an older audience, the series is still very much alive and being discovered by new generations of audiences every year. Unravel the mystery with these facts about Murder, She Wrote.


After years of high-profile parts and critical acclaim in the theater, Angela Lansbury was in her late fifties and ready to tackle a steady television role. Unfortunately, instead of being flooded with interesting lead roles on big series, she said she was constantly looked at to play “the maid or the housekeeper in some ensemble piece,” leaving her to get—in the Dame’s own words—“really pissed off.”

After voicing her displeasure, she was soon approached with two potential solo series, one being Murder, She Wrote, which grabbed her attention because of its focus on a normal country woman becoming an amateur detective. After meeting with the producers and writers, it was only a matter of time before Lansbury agreed to the role and began the 12-season run.


In 1995, CBS made a bold move: After airing on Sundays since 1984, Murder, She Wrote moved to Thursdays at 8:00 p.m. for its twelfth and final season, going head-to-head against Mad About You and Friends over at NBC. On a night dominated by younger viewers, Lansbury was at a loss.

"I'm shattered," she told the Los Angeles Times. "What can I say? I really feel very emotional about it. I just felt so disappointed that after all the years we had Sunday night at 8, suddenly it didn't mean anything. It was like gone with the wind."

Maybe not so coincidentally, during that last season of the series there was an episode titled “Murder Among Friends,” where a TV producer is killed in her office after planning to get rid of a member of the cast of a fictional television show called Buds. Complete with its coffee shop setting and snarky repartee, Buds was a not-so-subtle stab at Friends, coming at a time when Murder, She Wrote was placed right against the hip ratings juggernaut.

Putting the murder mystery aside for a moment, Fletcher takes plenty of jabs at Buds throughout, literally rolling her eyes at the thought of six twentysomethings becoming a hit because they sat around talking about their sexuality in every episode. The writing was on the wall as Murder, She Wrote was being phased out by CBS by the end of 1996, but Lansbury made sure to go down swinging.


Here’s one for any self-respecting trivia junkie: Jessica Fletcher holds a Guinness World Record for Most Prolific Amateur Sleuth. Though Guinness recognizes that Agatha Christie’s Miss Marple has been on and off screen longer—since 1956—Fletcher has actually gotten to the bottom of more cases with 264 episodes and four TV movies under her belt.


Quiet, upper-class New England coastal towns aren’t usually known for their murder count, but Cabot Cove, Maine, is a grisly destination indeed. In fact, if you look at the amount of murders per the population, it would have the highest rate on the planet, according to BBC Radio 4.

With 3560 people living in the town, and 5.3 murders occurring every year, that comes out to 1490 murders per million, which is 60 percent higher than that of Honduras, which only recently lost its title as the murder capital of the world. It’s also estimated that in total, about two percent of the folks in Cabot Cove end up murdered.


That statistic leads us right into our next thought: Isn’t it a little suspicious that Fletcher keeps stumbling upon all these murders? We know that Cabot Cove is a fairly sleepy town, but the murder rate rivals a Scorsese movie. And this one person—a suspicious novelist and amateur detective—always seems to get herself mixed up in the juiciest cases. Some people think there’s something sinister about the wealth of cases Fletcher writes about in her books: It’s because she’s the one doing the killing all along.

This theory has gained traction with fans over the years, and it helps explain the coincidental nature of the show. Murders aren’t just exclusive to Fletcher and Cabot Cove they follow her around when she’s on book tours, on trips out of town, or while writing the script to a VR video game for a company whose owner just so happens to get killed while Fletcher is around.

Could Jessica Fletcher have such an obsession with murder mysteries that she began to create her own? Was life in Cabot Cove too boring for a violent sociopath? Did she decide to take matters into her own hands after failing to think of original book ideas? We’ll never know, but it puts the whole series into a very different light.


Despite its inimitable style, Murder, She Wrote isn’t immune to Hollywood’s insatiable reboot itch, and in 2013 plans were put in motion to modernize the show for a new generation. NBC’s idea was to cast Octavia Spencer as a hospital administrator who self-publishes her first mystery novel and starts investigating real cases. Lansbury was none too pleased by the news.

"I think it's a mistake to call it Murder, She Wrote," she told The Hollywood Reporter in November 2013, "because Murder, She Wrote will always be about Cabot Cove and this wonderful little group of people who told those lovely stories and enjoyed a piece of that place, and also enjoyed Jessica Fletcher, who is a rare and very individual kind of person . So I'm sorry that they have to use the title Murder, She Wrote, even though they have access to it and it's their right."

When the plug was pulled on the series, Lansbury said she was "terribly pleased and relieved” by the news, adding that, "I knew it was a terrible mistake."


It’s impossible to separate Angela Lansbury from her role as Jessica Fletcher now, but she wasn’t the network’s first choice for the role. All in the Family’s Edith Bunker, actress Jean Stapleton, was originally approached about playing Fletcher, but she turned it down.

Stapleton cited a combination of wanting a break after All in the Family’s lengthy run and the fact that she wasn’t exactly thrilled with how the part was written, and the changes she wanted to make weren’t welcome. Despite not being enthralled by the original ideas for Fletcher, Stapleton agreed that Lansbury was “just right” for the part.


For anyone who didn’t get enough of Fletcher during Murder, She Wrote’s original run, there are more—plenty more—dead bodies to make your way through. Author Donald Bain has written 45 murder mystery novels starring Fletcher, all of which credit Fletcher as the "co-author." The books sport such titles as Killer in the Kitchen, Murder on Parade, and Margaritas & Murder. Not even cancellation can keep Cabot Cove safe, apparently.

On top of that, two point-and-click computer games were released based on the show in 2009 and 2012. Both games feature Fletcher solving multiple murders just like on the show, but don’t expect to hear the comforting voice of Angela Lansbury as you wade through the dead bodies. Only her likeness appears in the game not her voice.


When recently asked about her iconic role by the Sunday Post, Lansbury admitted that she'd be into seeing Murder, She Wrote come back in some form. "I was in genuine tears doing my last scene," Lansbury said. "Jessica Fletcher has become so much a part of my life, it was difficult to come to terms with it being all over . Having said that, there have been some two-hour specials since we stopped in 1996 and I wouldn’t be surprised if we got together just one more time."


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