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Oliver Wendell Holmes

Oliver Wendell Holmes

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Two prominent figures in American intellectual history, father and son, went by the name of Oliver Wendell Holmes. Although the terms "Jr." and "Sr." would apply, they were not consistently used, leading to some confusion.Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.
The first Oliver Wendell Holmes made significant contributions to both medicine and literature. Born on August 29, 1809, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, he was educated at Phillips Academy in Exeter and at Harvard. He declined to follow his father`s wishes and enter the ministry, and after a brief time in law school, he lost interest in that as well.He decided instead to enter medicine. He wrote on the spread of contagious diseases before the theory of germs was established.Holmes supported the candidacy of Harriot Hunt for admission to the Harvard medical school, for which he was criticized by the all-male faculty and student body. However, after the outbreak of the Civil War, Holmes demonstrated complete support for the Union.Holmes` parallel career in literature began with amateur poetry writing at a young age, which continued through his formal education. Constitution, called Old Ironsides, which brought him national attention.He also wrote essays, several of which were published in magazine form in 1831 and 1832 under the title, "Autocrat at the Breakfast-Table." When the Atlantic Monthly was launched by Boston`s literary elite in 1856, Holmes became a contributor. For the publication`s first issue, he revised two essays from The Autocrat at the Breakfast-Table which contributed to the magazine`s immediate success. In 1859, he produced The Professor at the Breakfast-Table, first in magazine serial form and then as a book. The series ended with The Poet at the Breakfast Table in 1879.On October 7, 1894, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., having outlived his wife and daughter, died in Boston.Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
The second Oliver Wendell Holmes as born in Boston on March 8, 1841. After graduating from Harvard in 1861, he entered the Union army, where he was wounded three times in engagements that included Antietam and Fredericksburg. Graduating from Harvard Law School in 1867, he entered law practice in Boston.Appointed a professor at Harvard`s law school in 1882, he resigned at the end of that year to become a justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Court. In 1899, he became its Chief Justice, and three years later, he was appointed an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, where he served for thirty years.Believing that the law was "an experiment, as all life is an experiment," Holmes was often in conflict with the more conservative justices, and earned the label "The Great Dissenter." He often wrote in favor of more liberal interpretations of the constitution, to allow for greater government regulation as in the case of Adkins v. Children`s Hospital. He advocated strong protection for the Freedom of Speech, although his most memorable quote may have been in Schenck v. United States (1919), he stated: "The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic."Holmes dissented in Adkins v. Children`s Hospital in 1923, objecting to the court`s overturning of a Congressional law establishing a minimum wage for women in the District of Columbia. He commented:

This statute does not compel anybody to pay anything. It simply forbids employment at rates below those fixed as the minimum requirement of health and right living. It is safe to assume that women will not be employed at even the lowest wages allowed unless they earn them, or unless the employer`s business can sustain the burden.

When Holmes finally resigned from the Supreme Court in 1932, he had become the oldest justice ever to serve. He died on March 5, 1935, two days short of his 94th birthday.

It’s Time to Stop Using the ‘Fire in a Crowded Theater’ Quote

Oliver Wendell Holmes made the analogy during a controversial Supreme Court case that was overturned more than 40 years ago.

Oliver Wendell Holmes made the analogy during a controversial Supreme Court case that was overturned more than 40 years ago.

Ninety-three years ago, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote what is perhaps the most well-known -- yet misquoted and misused -- phrase in Supreme Court history: "The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theatre and causing a panic."

Without fail, whenever a free speech controversy hits, someone will cite this phrase as proof of limits on the First Amendment. And whatever that controversy may be, "the law"--as some have curiously called it--can be interpreted to suggest that we should err on the side of censorship. Holmes' quote has become a crutch for every censor in America, yet the quote is wildly misunderstood.

The latest example comes from New York City councilmen Peter Vallone, who declared yesterday "Everyone knows the example of yelling fire in a crowded movie theater," as he called for charges against pseudonymous Twitter @ComfortablySmug for spreading false information during Hurricane Sandy. Other commentators have endorsed Vallone's suggestions, citing the same quote as established precedent.

In the last few years, the quote has reared its head on countless occasions. In September, commentators pointed to it when questioning whether the controversial anti-Muslim video should be censored. Before that, it was invoked when a crazy pastor threatened to burn Qurans. Before that, the analogy was twisted to call for charges against WikiLeaks for publishing classified information. The list goes on.

But those who quote Holmes might want to actually read the case where the phrase originated before using it as their main defense. If they did, they'd realize it was never binding law, and the underlying case, U.S. v. Schenck, is not only one of the most odious free speech decisions in the Court's history, but was overturned over 40 years ago.

First, it's important to note U.S. v. Schenck had nothing to do with fires or theaters or false statements. Instead, the Court was deciding whether Charles Schenck, the Secretary of the Socialist Party of America, could be convicted under the Espionage Act for writing and distributing a pamphlet that expressed his opposition to the draft during World War I. As the ACLU's Gabe Rottman explains, "It did not call for violence. It did not even call for civil disobedience."

The Court's description of the pamphlet proves it to be milder than any of the dozens of protests currently going on around this country every day:

It said, "Do not submit to intimidation," but in form, at least, confined itself to peaceful measures such as a petition for the repeal of the act. The other and later printed side of the sheet was headed "Assert Your Rights."

The crowded theater remark that everyone remembers was an analogy Holmes made before issuing the court's holding. He was explaining that the First Amendment is not absolute. It is what lawyers call dictum, a justice's ancillary opinion that doesn't directly involve the facts of the case and has no binding authority. The actual ruling, that the pamphlet posed a "clear and present danger" to a nation at war, landed Schenk in prison and continued to haunt the court for years to come.

Two similar Supreme Court cases decided later the same year--Debs v. U.S. and Frohwerk v. U.S.--also sent peaceful anti-war activists to jail under the Espionage Act for the mildest of government criticism. (Read Ken White's excellent, in-depth dissection of these cases.) Together, the trio of rulings did more damage to First Amendment as any other case in the 20th century.

In 1969, the Supreme Court's decision in Brandenburg v. Ohio effectively overturned Schenck and any authority the case still carried. There, the Court held that inflammatory speech--and even speech advocating violence by members of the Ku Klux Klan--is protected under the First Amendment, unless the speech "is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action" (emphasis mine).

Today, despite the "crowded theater" quote's legal irrelevance, advocates of censorship have not stopped trotting it out as thefinal word on the lawful limits of the First Amendment. As Rottman wrote, for this reason, it's "worse than useless in defining the boundaries of constitutional speech. When used metaphorically, it can be deployed against any unpopular speech." Worse, its advocates are tacitly endorsing one of the broadest censorship decisions ever brought down by the Court. It is quite simply, as Ken White calls it, "the most famous and pervasive lazy cheat in American dialogue about free speech."

Even Justice Holmes may have quickly realized the gravity of his opinions in Schneck and its companion cases. Later in the same term, Holmes suddenly dissented in a similar case, Abrams vs. United States, which sent Russian immigrants to jail under the Espionage Act. It would become the first in a long string of dissents Holmes and fellow Justice Louis Brandeis would write in defense of free speech that collectively laid the groundwork for Court decisions in the 1960s and 1970s that shaped the First Amendment jurisprudence of today.

In what would become his second most famous phrase, Holmes wrote in Abrams that the marketplace of ideas offered the best solution for tamping down offensive speech: "The ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas -- that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out."

In @ComfortablySmug's case during Hurricane Sandy, that is exactly what happened. Within minutes of sending out his false tweets, journalists discovered he was spreading rumors and quickly corrected the record, sounding the alarm not to trust his information. Regardless, no one was hurt because of his misinformation. The next day, @ComfortablySmug (whose real name is Shashank Tripathi) apologized and resigned from his job as the campaign manager of a House Republican candidate in New York in response to the public's reaction to his actions.

The truth prevailed, not through forcing censorship or jailing a person for speaking, but through the overwhelming counterbalance of more speech. As Holmes said after his soliloquy in Abrams, "That, at any rate, is the theory of our Constitution."

U.S. Permanent Committee for the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise

The U.S. Permanent Committee for the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise is a committee within the Library of Congress, established by Congress in 1955 after the late Associate Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. bequeathed a portion of his estate to the United States in 1935. The Congress used the gift to create a garden on the grounds of the U.S. Supreme Court and to establish the Committee to document and disseminate the history of the Court. The Committee is composed of five members - the Librarian of Congress and four additional members appointed by the President to serve eight-year terms. [1] As of October 2020, the Commission has published ten volumes detailing the history of the Supreme Court. [2]

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, died on March 6, 1935, his will contained the following residuary clause,

“All of the rest, residue and remainder of my property of whatsoever nature, wheresoever situate, of which I may die seized and possessed, or in which I may have an interest at the time of my death, I give, devise, and bequeath to the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.” [3]

The value of the bequest was roughly $263,000 at the time of Holmes's death and it was President Franklin Roosevelt who recommended the gift be used to document and promote the law. In 1938 a committee of three Congressmen, three Senators, and three Supreme Court members recommended four options for the gift. The options were: (1) establish a collection of legal literature in the Library of Congress, (2) turning Holmes residence into a permanent memorial, (3) publishing Holmes writings, or (4) creating a memorial park in Washington dedicated to Holmes. Congress approved the third and fourth recommendations in 1940, however, World War II pre-empted execution of the plans. The matter was finalized in 1955 with Public Law 84-246 which established the Permanent Committee for the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise to publish an official history of the Supreme Court. The Committee has four members appointed by the President as recommended by the Association of American Law Schools, the American Philosophical Society, the American Historical Association, and the Association of American Universities, with the Librarian of Congress serving as ex officio chairperson. [4] The series has not been published in volume order, the first published were, Volume 1: Antecedents and beginnings to 1801 and Volume 6: Reconstruction and reunion, 1864-88 in 1971. The most recent publication was Volume 12: The birth of the modern Constitution in 2006 and the volume covering the Earl Warren court was expected in 2017 but has yet to be published. [1]

The Most Powerful Dissent in American History

A smart new book reveals precisely how and why Oliver Wendell Holmes changed his mind about the first amendment.

If there is a more relevant or powerful passage in American law, I am not aware of it. Relevant because it expressed a universal concept -- free trade in ideas -- that 125 years after the Constitution was ratified still had not yet taken hold in our democracy. Powerful because it went beyond legal precepts to a fundamental fact of human existence: We all make mistakes. We all have good opinions and bad ones. None of us are right all the time. All of us at one point or another have to respect what someone else says. And life is an experiment from the moment we wake in the morning until the moment we lay our heads down at night.

It's a passage written 94 years ago that both explains and preserves our op-ed pages and the Internet, talk-radio shows, and blogs, in the brilliant blending of two American institutions that were not always destined to go together: the free market and free speech. It's a passage that both acknowledges human weakness and strives to master it, that recognizes the roiling diversity of American thought and seeks to make something clear and profound from it. From United States Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in his dissent in Abrams v. United States:

Persecution for the expression of opinions seems to me perfectly logical. If you have no doubt of your premises or your power, and want a certain result with all your heart, you naturally express your wishes in law, and sweep away all opposition. To allow opposition by speech seems to indicate that you think the speech impotent, as when a man says that he has squared the circle, or that you do not care wholeheartedly for the result, or that you doubt either your power or your premises.

But when men have realized that time has upset many fighting faiths, they may come to believe even more than they believe the very foundations of their own conduct that the ultimate good desired is better reached by free trade in ideas -- that the best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, and that truth is the only ground upon which their wishes safely can be carried out.

That, at any rate, is the theory of our Constitution. It is an experiment, as all life is an experiment. Every year, if not every day, we have to wager our salvation upon some prophecy based upon imperfect knowledge. While that experiment is part of our system, I think that we should be eternally vigilant against attempts to check the expression of opinions that we loathe and believe to be fraught with death, unless they so imminently threaten immediate interference with the lawful and pressing purposes of the law that an immediate check is required to save the country.

Of course, the story of free speech in America neither begins nor ends with Abrams. But it is a clear pivot point. In that 1919 case, a dispute decided one year minus one day after the end of the first "war to end all wars," the United States Supreme Court sustained the convictions of five Russian-born men who were prosecuted under the Espionage Act of 1917, as it had been amended by the Sedition Act of 1918, for "provoking and encouraging" resistance to the government's war efforts (and its hostile maneuvers toward Russia) through a series of pamphlets.

Such prosecutions would be unthinkable today, not because modern officials embrace criticism more bravely than their predecessors but because we have come as a nation and as a people to acknowledge that the First Amendment's protections are (and ought to be) especially stout when it comes to dissent about the public workings of government. And that nearly universal acknowledgment, which has survived America's four major wars since World War I and guides the way we both conduct business and handle our own personal affairs, was born in Justice Holmes' dissent.

Just in time for your August beach reading, Thomas Healy, a former federal appeals court law clerk and reporter for The Baltimore Sun, has written an excellent book about how Justice Holmes, perhaps the most famous and influential justice of all time, came to write this passage -- and came around, at last, to a rousing defense of the First Amendment. Titled The Great Dissent: How Oliver Wendell Holmes Changed His Mind-- and Changed the History of Free Speech in America, the book is a fascinating glimpse into an art that seems lost in law and politics today: the art of changing one's mind.

In meticulous detail, Healy tells us how the great jurist, who had staunchly upheld criminal convictions in free speech cases just months before, changed his mind in Abrams. He changed it because of an intense lobbying effort by his political friends and fellow judges. He changed it because he had been reading the work of legal and political philosophers in Europe, both living and dead. He changed it because he came gradually to realize how broadly the Justice Department was relying upon federal statutes to punish even that dissent which was obviously unlikely to undermine the government's ability to function.

Healy begins his book with an anecdote about a visit Justice Holmes received at home from three of his fellow justices, after he had distributed his dissent in Abrams but before he would publicly announce it. What transpired in that meeting isn't just "a remarkable piece of constitutional history," as Healy puts it, but remarkable for what it suggests about the way the Supreme Court does (or does not) operate today. Can you imagine Justices Scalia, Thomas and Alito visiting Justice Anthony Kennedy in this fashion? I cannot. From Healy's book, on the 1919 Court's initial reaction to Holmes' words:

No one else on the Court wrote like this. Only Holmes could translate the law into such stirring, unforgettable language. Yet even by his high standards this was unusually fine, and his colleagues worried about the effect it might have. Although the war had ended a year earlier, the country was still in a fragile state. There had been race riots that summer, labor strikes that fall. A bomb had exploded on the attorney general's doorstep-- the opening strike, the papers warned, in a grand Bolshevik plot. A dissent like this, from a figure as venerable as Holmes, might weaken the country's resolve and give comfort to the enemy.

The nation's security was at stake, the justices told Holmes. As an old soldier, he should close ranks and set aside his personal views. They even appealed to [Holmes' wife] Fanny, who nodded her head in agreement. The tone of their plea was friendly, even affectionate, and Holmes listened thoughtfully. He had always respected the institution of the Court and more than once had suppressed his own beliefs for the sake of unanimity. But this time he felt a duty to speak his mind. He told his colleagues he regretted he could not join them, and they left without pressing him further.

Three days later, Holmes read his dissent in Abrams v. United States from the bench. As expected, it caused a sensation. Conservatives denounced it as dangerous and extreme. Progressives hailed it as a monument to liberty. And the future of free speech was forever changed.

There have been other instances where a justice changed his mind in a case of profound constitutional import. As Harvard Law School professor Laurence Tribe reminded me this week, Justice Potter Stewart shifted on the issue of reproductive autonomy from dissent in Griswold v. Connecticut in 1965 to the majority in Roe v. Wade in 1973. Justice William J. Brennan shifted on obscenity standards from Roth v. United States in 1957 to Paris Adult Theatre v. Slaton in 1973. Justice Harry Blackmun belatedly changed his mind about the constitutionality of the death penalty. Then there was Justice Owen Roberts' "switch in time" in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish in 1937. None come close to Holmes' "fighting faith" passage.

Judges, and politicians, are too often criticized for changing their minds. Are you not smarter today than you were 10 years ago? Twenty years ago? Have not life's many "experiments" given you wisdom that you did not previously have? The genius of Justice Holmes' dissent in Abrams wasn't just its eloquence it was "meta-ness." He was changing his mind about the need, the value, the glory, the benefit, of changing one's mind and of accepting the changing of other people's minds. Healy has written a magnificent book about a magnificent moment in American legal history -- and in the life of a magnificent man who was smart enough to understand just how wrong people can be.

History of the Court – Timeline of the Justices – Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., 1902-1932

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, JR., was born on March 8, 1841, in Boston, Massachusetts. He was graduated from Harvard College in 1861. Holmes served for three years with the Massachusetts Twentieth Volunteers during the Civil War. He was wounded three times. In 1866 he returned to Harvard and received his law degree. The following year Holmes was admitted to the bar and joined a law firm in Boston, where he practiced for fifteen years. Holmes taught law at his alma mater, edited the American Law Review, and lectured at the Lowe Institute. In 1881, he published a series of twelve lectures on the common law, which was translated into several languages. In 1882, while working as a full professor at Harvard Law School, Holmes was appointed by the Governor to the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. He served on that Court for twenty years, the last three as Chief Justice. On December 4, 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Holmes to the Supreme Court of the United States. The Senate confirmed the appointment four days later. Holmes served on the Supreme Court for twenty-nine years and retired on January 12, 1932. He died on March 6, 1935, two days short of his ninety-fourth birthday.

Oliver Wendell Holmes - History

The reader of this biographical profile will probably be wondering why the famous American jurist, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., appears on the prominent Dutch American listing. Well, the answer is because his grandmother came from an impeccable Dutch American background. His paternal grandmother was Sarah Wendell, the daughter of a wealthy family. Her ancestry goes back to the first Wendell, Evert Jansen, who left Holland in 1640 and settled in Albany, New York. If you look through the phone book pages in Albany, New York today, you will find a plethora of Wendells, all distant cousins of Oliver Wendell Holmes.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1902. He was nominated by another famous Dutch American, President Theodore Roosevelt, and his nomination passed the United States Senate unanimously. Holmes became one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history. He would serve until 1932, when he was asked to resign because of his advanced age. Holmes, by that time, had reached the advance age of 90 years.

Holmes was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on March 8, 1841, and was the son of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., and Amelia Lee Jackson, a noted abolitionist. As a young man he liked literature and graduated from Harvard University in 1861. But note that 1861 was the start of the Civil War. Holmes enlisted in the Massachusetts Militia. He rose to the rank of a first lieutenant, and saw much action in the Civil War. He was wounded at the Battle of Ball’s Bluff, at Antietam and at Fredericksburg, Virginia.

Following the war, Holmes returned to Harvard and studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1866. He practiced law in Boston, and focused on admiralty law and commercial law for fifteen years. In 1870, just five years out of law school he became the editor of the “American Law Review”. Following that time period he published many papers on common law. He also published his well-regarded book, “The Common Law” in 1881.

In 1882, Holmes was appointed to a professorship at Harvard Law School. Shortly thereafter he was appointed to the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, and resigned from his Harvard appointment. In 1889, Holmes was appointed to chief Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court.

In 1902, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Holmes to the United States Supreme Court. The United States Senate unanimously confirmed the nomination. For the next 30 years Holmes would be a member of the Court, and would become one of the most influential American common-law judges. Holmes viewed the Bill of Rights as codifying privileges obtained over the centuries in English and American law.

During his early years as a lawyer, prior to his Supreme Court years, Holmes would often spend time in London, England, during the social season of spring and summer. While there he became associated with the “sociological” school of jurisprudence in England. This movement would, a generation later, be known as the “legal realist” school in the United States.

Following his graduation from Harvard Law School, Holmes married his childhood friend, Fanny Bowditch Dixwell. Their marriage would last until her death in 1929. Unfortunately their marriage did not produce any children. They did, however, adopt and raise an orphaned cousin, named Dorothy Upham. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., passed away on March 6, 1935, two day short of his 94th birthday. He was interred in Arlington National Cemetery.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. is recognized as one of the greatest justices of the United States Supreme Court. In his will, he also expressed his love and devotion to his country by leaving his estate to the United States government. He had stated earlier that taxes we pay to the government are a price we pay for being able to live in a civilized society.





Holmesdale, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.'s Pittsfield estate, 'has history upon history upon history'

After being vacant for two years, the historic Holmesdale, poet Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.'s historic 19th-century estate on Holmes Road in Pittsfield, was purchased in 2016 by two men from Florida, who are using it as a private residence.

Holmesdale, poet Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.'s historic 19th-century estate on Holmes Road in Pittsfield, has had several owners since 1928, and the property has been subdivided many times over the past 91 years.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., the father of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., built the Holmesdale estate for use as a summer residence that he called Canoe Meadow. The estate, located across Holmes Road from Miss Hall's School in Pittsfield, originally consisted of 217 acres.

A postcard by the Detroit Publishing Co. depicts Holmesdale, the Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. estate on Holmes Road in Pittsfield.

A real estate advertisement posted in The Berkshire County Eagle of June 25, 1863, lists the "Holmes Place," later known as Holmesdale, for sale.

PITTSFIELD — Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was a frequent visitor. Herman Melville lived just down the street.

Holmesdale, poet Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.'s historic 19th-century estate on Holmes Road, has had its share of famous neighbors and visitors. And now it has new owners.

After being vacant for two years, the historic home was purchased in 2016 by two men from Florida, who are using it as a private residence.

"This house has history upon history upon history," said Michael Cabana, who bought the 16-acre estate from the Holmesdale Revocable Trust for $375,000 three years ago.

Holmesdale, built by Holmes in 1849 on what was then a much larger parcel of land, had been on the market for several years and was listed for as much as $2.3 million in 2007.

Former owners Arthur and Sylvia Stein, who bought the estate in 1974, tried to hold on to it as they got older and needed to downsize — "it meant an awful lot to them," said their daughter, Maxine Stein, of Northampton.

But, when the couple's health declined, they moved out in 2014. The listing eventually caught the eye of Cabana, who works for the Veterans Administration, and Michael Nicholas, a retired interior designer, who were living in Winter Park, Fla. Cabana, originally from Cumberland, R.I., had lived in Florida for 30 years and was thinking about coming back to New England when he learned that the house was available.

"I sold my home in Florida," he said. "I've always been interested in historic homes, and this fit the ticket."

Nicholas, who originally is from New York, was familiar with the area, from attending concerts at the former Music Inn in Lenox.

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"I always remembered how beautiful it was," he said, referring to the Berkshires.

Holmes (1809-1894), the father of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., built the estate for use as a summer residence that he called Canoe Meadow. The estate, located across Holmes Road from Miss Hall's School, originally consisted of 217 acres, what remained of the 24,000 acres Holmes' great-grandfather, Col. Jacob Wendell, acquired when he laid out the township of Pontoosuck in 1738, the area that later became Pittsfield. After seven summers, Holmes sold the estate because it became too expensive to maintain, according to Eagle files. The Kernochan family, of Tuxedo Park, N.Y., who owned the estate from 1872 to 1928, renamed it Holmesdale.

Holmesdale has had several owners since 1928, and the property has been subdivided many times over the past 91 years. It contained 30 acres when the Stein family purchased the property from Miss Hall's 45 years ago. The property currently houses the main house, which now has eight rooms, according to Cabana and Nicholas, and a four-room guesthouse that the two men have begun to use as an Airbnb. Their property still runs down to the Housatonic River, Cabana said.

Despite the house being vacant for so long, Cabana said it was structurally sound when he bought it and that the majority of the $50,000 that he and Nicholas spent restoring the property went toward cosmetic improvements. The property also includes a pool, fountain and tennis court. It also has nine bathrooms.

"We were lucky that it's still in great shape," Cabana said.

Cabana and Nicholas have cleaned up the interior but have maintained several of the home's historic features. A portrait of Holmes hangs in a first-floor study. They also have placed a sign on the driveway's entrance that signifies the property is the former Holmesdale estate.

Oliver Wendell Holmes - History

Are Oliver Wendell Holmes, Senior and Junior, both Dutch Americans? Yes, they are. Their Dutch lineage comes from the mother of Holmes, Sr. and the grandmother of Holmes, Jr. Her name was Sarah Wendell, the daughter of a wealthy Dutch American family. Her ancestry goes back to the first Wendell, Evert Jansen, who left Holland in 1640 and settled in Albany, New York. If you look through the telephone book pages in Albany, New York, you will find a plethora of Wendells, all distant cousins of the two Oliver Wendell Holmes.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.’s interests and expertise ranged widely over a number of different areas. He was an American physician, a professor, a writer, and a lecturer. He is probably best known for his poetry, because he is considered to be one of the best poets of the nineteenth century, by his peers. He is also considered to be a member of the “Fireside Poets”. His most famous prose works are the “The Breakfast Table” series.

Holmes was educated at Phillips Academy and Harvard College. He graduated from Harvard College in 1829, and then briefly studied law before turning to the study of medicine. His medical education and training took place at Harvard and at Paris, France medical institutions. In 1836, he received his medical degree, the M.D., from Harvard Medical School. Following his medical training, he joined the Medical School faculty at Dartmouth, and later returned as a faculty member to the Harvard Medical School, where he later also served as Dean of the Medical School.

While engaged in his medical studies, Holmes began writing poetry. One of his earliest works, and also one of his most famous pieces, was “Old Ironsides”, which was published in 1830, only one year following his graduation from Harvard College. He would continue to write poetry and prose during the remainder of his life. However, he did much of his writing after he retired from Harvard Medical School in 1882. He then continued writing poetry, novels and essays until his death in 1894.

Although Holmes is best remembered as a poet and writer, we must remember that Holmes’s main profession during his life was medicine and the teaching of medicine. Having obtained much of his medical training in the famous Paris Ecole de Medicine, Holmes was well positioned to impart and teach the latest medical knowledge to future American medical practitioners. At that time American medicine was still in a rather formative stage. Even Holmes was known to refer to much of American medicine as “quackery”. Holmes became a strong advocate of the French “mode expectante”, a medical therapy method of not interfering with the body’s natural healing process. The physician’s role in the “mode expectante” is to do everything possible to aid nature in the healing process of disease recovery, and to do nothing to interfere with it.

As a poet Holmes made an indelible imprint on the literary world of the nineteenth century. Much of his work was published by the prestigious “Atlantic Monthly”. He also received a number of honorary degrees for his literary work by universities around the world. One of his better known poems was “The Last Leaf”, a poem partially inspired by one of Boston’s historical figures, Thomas Melville, a member of the 1774 Boston Tea Party.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on August 29, 1809. He was the first son of Abiel Holmes [1763-1837] who was a minister of the First Congregational Church, and an avid historian. Holmes’ mother was Sarah Wendell, the daughter of a judge. On June 15, 1840, Holmes married Amelia Lee Jackson. She was the daughter of Judge Charles Jackson, who had been an Associative Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. The couple had three children, consisting of the future United States Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. [1841-1935], a daughter, Amelia Jackson Holmes [1843-1889], and another son, Edward Jackson Holmes [1846-1884]. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. passed away on October 7, 1894 at the advanced age of 85 years.





The Best Sentence in Atlantic History?

After the Battle of Antietam, Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote a gripping story about his search for his wounded son. But one of the most memorable lines had nothing to do with the Civil War.

In September 1862, the future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. was one of 22,717 men who fell during the Battle of Antietam. His father, Oliver Sr., set out on an epic journey to find him and, a couple of months later, wrote about it for The Atlantic.

“My Hunt After the Captain” is an incredible firsthand account of what Maryland looked and felt like just after the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. Holmes describes what he saw on the streets of Frederick: “Delicate boys, with more spirit than strength, flushed with fever or pale with exhaustion or haggard with suffering, dragged their weary limbs along as if each step would exhaust their slender store of strength.” He notes what the ground looked like after the battle, with “dark red patches where a pool of blood had curdled and caked, as some poor fellow poured his life out on the sod.”

But there’s one especially memorable sentence that has nothing to do with the war. It comes near the beginning, as Holmes is recalling his train ride down from New England:

Many times, when I have got upon the cars, expecting to be magnetized into an hour or two of blissful reverie, my thoughts shaken up by the vibrations into all sorts of new and pleasing patterns, arranging themselves in curves and nodal points, like the grains of sand in Chladni's famous experiment,—fresh ideas coming up to the surface, as the kernels do when a measure of corn is jolted in a farmer's wagon,—all this without volition, the mechanical impulse alone keeping the thoughts in motion, as the mere act of carrying certain watches in the pocket keeps them wound up,—many times, I say, just as my brain was beginning to creep and hum with this delicious locomotive intoxication, some dear detestable friend, cordial, intelligent, social, radiant, has come up and sat down by me and opened a conversation which has broken my day-dream, unharnessed the flying horses that were whirling along my fancies and hitched on the old weary omnibus-team of every-day associations, fatigued my hearing and attention, exhausted my voice, and milked the breasts of my thought dry during the hour when they should have been filling themselves full of fresh juices.

This sentence (and it is one single sentence!) is amazing for all kinds of reasons. First, there’s the sheer length—it’s 198 words long. Then there are the metaphors. Holmes’s thoughts are “magnetized,” then “shaken up by vibrations.” He casually alludes to “Chladni’s famous experiment” (you can read about it on Wikipedia if you don’t own a copy of the 1787 classic Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges). Then he compares his thoughts to kernels of corn, cogs in a self-winding watch, and carriages being pulled by flying horses. By the end, his thoughts are breasts, which his chatty friend has milked dry.

It’s not just Holmes’s writing that’s remarkable. It’s also the actual experience he’s describing. In this age of smartphones, it’s hard to remember a time when people actively sought out opportunities to daydream. But you can see it in just about every Atlantic article from the 19th century—our writers were in no hurry. They were enjoying the process of thinking on paper, letting their associations carry them along without worrying about where they might end up (or when they might need to use a period). Emerson wrote that way: James Russell Lowell once described the Concord sage’s prose as “a chaos full of shooting-stars, a jumble of creative forces.” But I never really understood the mindset behind this kind of writing until I read that sentence by Oliver Wendell Holmes.

To find out more, I called up David S. Reynolds, a distinguished professor at the CUNY Graduate Center who specializes in 19th century literature and history. As someone who studies that era, Reynolds chuckled affectionately at Holmes’s sentence. He said it reminded him of Herman Melville: All throughout Moby Dick and Bartleby, the Scrivener, “there are a lot of these longer sentences that go on and on, and yet they hang together and are filled with metaphors that are just wonderful.”

Reynolds pointed out that the 19th century was the Romantic age, a time when writers wanted to “luxuriate in language” and explore their inner worlds. A classic example, he said, was Walt Whitman’s 1855 “Song of Myself.” Reynolds’s students often have trouble understanding what Whitman meant when he wrote, “I lean and loafe at my ease . observing a spear of summer grass.” “Some of them say, ‘What is this guy, a space cadet or something?’ But that’s the way Whitman was. He was able to really slow down and enjoy his environment.”

What made writers stop loafing in the grass? Mark Twain, another Atlantic contributor, had a lot to do with it. According to Reynolds, Ernest Hemingway was right when he observed, “All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn.”

“I mean, the Holmes sentence was really designed for an educated reading public,” Reynolds said. “It doesn’t pretend to be at all vernacular. What Mark Twain did was to try and register the voices of people who weren’t necessarily educated, barely literate kids.” And Twain didn’t hide his disdain for those who wrote 200-word sentences. According to Reynolds, “He once stood up before a literary crowd at a formal banquet and went on and on about the windy, excessive language of writers like James Fenimore Cooper.”

American literature didn’t change all at once Reynolds points out that Henry James went right on doing his thing even as Twain was writing his down-to-earth dialogue. But history was on Twain’s side. The spread of mass media, the rise of motion pictures, and the popularity of Strunk and White all helped shape the sensibilities we have now. Today’s Atlantic editors would never let some of the metaphors Holmes used into a finished story, let alone all of them in one endless sentence.

But that’s part of what makes Holmes’s writing so mischievously appealing. It breaks all our modern rules, but somehow, it works. He manages to capture the motion of the mind, the almost physical ways it floats and vibrates and whirs. Writers may write differently now, but our words and ideas still come from somewhere, and the process of bringing them to the surface is as wonderful and mysterious as it ever was. Sometimes it takes a 198-word sentence by a masterful writer to remind us of that.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, father and son

1. Oliver Wendell Holmes1, born 08 Mar 1841 in Boston, Suffolk Co., MA died 06 Mar 1935 in Washington, DC. He was the son of 2. Oliver Wendell Holmes
and 3. Amelia Lee Jackson.

Notes for Oliver Wendell Holmes:

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. was born in Boston on March 8, 1841. He would live until two days short of his 94th birthday. His father, Oliver Wendell Holmes,
Sr., was a physician, a professor of medicine at Harvard, and an author of novels, verse, and humorous essays. Thus, Holmes grew up in a literary, and
prosperous, family.

Holmes attended private schools in Boston and then, like his father, Harvard. Young Holmes was not overly impressed with the Harvard of that time, finding the
curriculum stultifying (Henry Adams later remarked that "Harvard taught little, and that little ill."). He exercised his literary talents as editor
of the Harvard Magazine, and in numerous essays. His graduation was even in some doubt, as he had been publicly admonished by the faculty for
"disrespect" towards a professor. Holmes evidently took this as an affront and left to train for the Civil War. His unit was not immediately sent to
the front, and Holmes was persuaded to return and receive his degree.

After graduating from Harvard, Holmes began his Civil War service. He was wounded in battle three times and also suffered numerous illnesses. Though he was
later to glorify wartime service, he declined to renew his term of service when it expired. Holmes apparently, and justifiably, felt that he had done more than
his duty, and had survived one battle too many to continue tempting fate.

Holmes returned to Boston, decided to study law, and entered Harvard Law School in 1864. Though at first uncertain that law would be his profession, he soon
became immersed in study and decided that the law would be his life's work. He committed himself to the law, but not necessarily to the private practice.

After passing the required oral examination, Holmes was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1867. For the next fourteen years he practiced law in Boston. But
his love for legal scholarship, rather than the mundane daily practice, was evident during this period. He worked on a new edition of Kent's Commentaries,
a mammoth endeavor that took some four years, and became the editor of the American law Review.

Holmes married Fanny Dixwell in 1872. They had known each other since Holmes was about ten years old, as she was the daughter of the proprietor of the private
school he attended. Their marriage was to be childless, and endured until her death in 1929.

Holmes's most famous work, The Common Law, published in 1881 grew out of a series of twelve lectures he was invited to deliver, which required that he
explain the fundamentals of American law. Holmes questioned the historical underpinnings of much of Anglo-American jurisprudence. The work contains
Holmes's most famous quote, "The life of the law has not been logic it has been experience." Holmes had come to believe that even outdated and
seemingly illogical legal doctrines survived because they found new utility. Old legal forms were adapted to new societal conditions.

Shortly after publication of The Common Law, Holmes was offered a post teaching law at Harvard. After some intense negotiation, mainly centered on money,
because Holmes was not wealthy and needed the income to live, he accepted the professorship. But after teaching only one semester, he resigned to accept an
appointment to the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, the state's highest court. The opening had arisen at the end of the current Republican
governor's term, and as he was to be succeeded by a Democrat, the appointment had to be accomplished with dispatch. Holmes's departure from Harvard
caused some consternation, however, as he was one of only five full-time professors, and an endowment had been specially raised to fund his professorship.

Holmes served on the Supreme Judicial Court for twenty years, becoming chief justice. He loved the work-the legal research and the "writing up" of
cases. Holmes found the work easy, at least for him. He could see immediately to the heart of an issue, and his intellectual powers were far superior to his
colleagues. Holmes was never accused of modesty, especially concerning his superiority to his fellow judges. Though he was happy on the Supreme Judicial Court,
he desired greater fame and challenge.

The opportunity for ultimate professional advancement came in 1902, when Holmes was appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt to the United States Supreme
Court. His appointment might never have happened, except that the "New England seat" on the court became vacant during Roosevelt's term, and
Roosevelt and Holmes were both friends with Massachusetts Senator, Henry Cabot Lodge. Lodge persuaded Roosevelt that Holmes was "safe," meaning
favorable towards Roosevelt's progressive policies. Roosevelt would later regret the appointment, after Holmes participated in striking down some of
Roosevelt's initiatives.

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. would serve on the Supreme Court longer than any other person-thirty years. He was called "The Great Dissenter" because he
was often at odds with his fellow justices and was capable of eloquently expressing his dissents. Louis Brandeis often joined him in dissents, and their views
often became the majority opinion in a few years' time. Holmes resigned due to ill health in 1932, at age ninety. He died in 1935 and is buried in
Arlington National Cemetery next to his wife.

Holmes's legal philosophy evolved over the sixty-odd years he wrote on the law. At first, he attempted a rational, systematic, or "scientific"
conceptualization. But over time, he came to realize that the law was more of a compendium of decisions reflecting individual judges' resolutions of actual
cases. Thus, the growth of the law was by experience molded to actual controversies in the society of the day.

Widely considered a "liberal" because he believed in free speech and the right of labor to organize, Holmes was very conservative in his response to
injury cases. He was a champion of "judicial restraint"-deferring to the judgment of the legislature in most matters of policy.

Holmes is considered one of the giants of American law. Not just because he wrote so well, but also because he wrote so much, and for so long. A lawyer seeking
a quote from Holmes is never left wanting. Even the Internal Revenue Service building in Washington, D.C. bears his writing, "Taxes are the price we pay
for a civilized society."

More About Oliver Wendell Holmes:

Burial: Arlington National Cemetery

2. Oliver Wendell Holmes1, born 29 Aug 1809 died 07 Oct 1894. He was the son of 4. Abiel Holmes and 5. Sarah Wendell. He married 3. Amelia Lee Jackson.

3. Amelia Lee Jackson1, born 22 May 1818 died 06 Feb 1888.

Notes for Oliver Wendell Holmes:

Oliver Wendell Holmes, a celebrated physician and professor of anatomy and physiology at Harvard, is the hardest of the three well-known Brahmins to categorize
because his work is marked by a refreshing versatility. It encompasses collections of humorous essays (for example, The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table, 1858),
novels (Elsie Venner, 1861), biographies (Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1885), and verse that could be sprightly ("The Deacon's Masterpiece, or, The Wonderful
One-Hoss Shay"), philosophical ("The Chambered Nautilus"), or fervently patriotic ("Old Ironsides").

Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the suburb of Boston that is home to Harvard, Holmes was the son of a prominent local minister. His mother was a descendant
of the poet Anne Bradstreet. In his time, and more so thereafter, he symbolized wit, intelligence, and charm not as a discoverer or a trailblazer, but rather
as an exemplary interpreter of everything from society and language to medicine and human nature.

Holmes was the father of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr, the Supreme Court Justice.

HOLMES was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 29, 1809, and died October 7, 1894.

At the age of twenty he graduated at Harvard University, then took up the study of law. This study, however, was soon abandoned for medicine. He studied in
Europe for a short time, and took his degree as doctor of medicine at Cambridge, in 1836. Two years later he was appointed to the chair of Anatomy and
Physiology in Dartmouth College. This position he held till 1847, when he accepted a similar position at Harvard, which he held till 1892. All of his literary
work was performed in addition to the labors of a continuous professorship in college of about forty-seven years.

Holmes' literary tastes were early indicated by his comic and satiric verse contributed to "The Collegian." These were excellent of their
kind. In his early works, the mirth so often outweighed the sentiment as to lessen the promise and the self-prediction of his being a poet indeed. While many
of his youthful stanzas are serious and elegant, those which approach the feeling of true poetry are in celebration of companionship and good cheer. He seemed
to exemplify what Emerson was wont to preach, that there is honest wisdom in song and joy. He contributed numerous pieces to American periodicals, and in 1836
collected his poems into a volume. His life was not marked by any noted events, but it was like the steady movement of a great river. It grew broader and
deeper in each mile of its progress. "Holmes was a shining instance of one who did solid work as a teacher and practitioner, in spite of his success in
literature." "Poetry," a metrical essay, was followed by "Terpsichore," a poem in 1846, "Urania," in 1850,
"Astreea," "The Balance of Allusions," a poem. These poems were first delivered before college and literary societies.

Though the most direct and obvious of the Cambridge group, the least given to subtleties, he was our typical university poet the minstrel of the college
that bred him, and within whose liberties he taught, jested, sung, and toasted, from boyhood to what in common folk would be old age. Alma Mater was more to
him than to Lowell or Longfellow, and not until he came into her estate could Harvard boast a natural songster as her laureate. Two centuries of acclimation,
and some experience of liberty, probably were needed to germinate the fancy that riots in his measures. Before his day, moreover, the sons of the Puritans
hardly were ripe for the doctrine that there is a time to laugh, that humor is quite as helpful a constituent of life as gravity or gloom. Provincial-wise,
they at first had to receive this in its cruder form, and relished heartily the broad fun of Holmes' youthful verse. Their mirth-maker soon perceived that
both fun and feeling are heightened when combined. The poet of 'The Last Leaf' was among the first to teach his countrymen that pathos is an equal part
of true humor that sorrow is lightened by jest, and jest redeemed from coarseness by emotion, under most conditions of this our evanescent human life."

Turning his attention to prose, he published, in 1858, "The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table," a series of light and genial essays full of fancy
and humor, which has been successful both in the New and Old World. It appears that this work was planned in his youth but we owe to his maturity the
experience, drollery, proverbial humor, and suggestion that flow at ease through its pages. Little was too high or too low for the comment of this down-east
philosopher. A kind of attenuated Franklin, he viewed things and folks with the less robustness, but with keener distinction and insight. His pertinent maxims
are so frequent that it seems, as was said of Emerson, as if he had jotted them down from time to time and here first brought them to application they are
apothegms of common life and action, often of mental experience, strung together by a device to original as to make the work quite a novelty in literature. The
Autocrat holds an intellectual tourney at a boarding-house table there, jousts against humbug and stupidity, gives light touches of knowledge, sentiment,
illustration, coins here and there a phrase destined to be long current, nor forgets the poetic duty of providing a little idyl of human love and interest.

This was followed by "The Professor at the Breakfast Table," and later by "The Poet at the Breakfast Table." "The Professor"
is written somewhat in the manner of Sterne, yet without much artifice. The story of Iris is an interwoven thread of gold. The poems in this book are inferior
to those of the Autocrat, but its author here and there shows a gift of drawing real characters the episode of the Little Gentleman is itself a poem,--its
close very touching, though imitated from the death scene in Tristram Shandy. "The Poet at the Breakfast Table," written some years after, is of a
more serious cast than its predecessors, chiefly devoted to Holmes' peculiar mental speculations and his fluent gossip on books and learning. He makes his
rare old pundit a liberal thinker, clearly of the notion that a high scholarship leads to broader views.

Between the second and third of the "Autocrat" series, appeared, in 1861, "Elsie Venner," and in 1868, "The Guardian Angel,"
two excellent novels. Then, in 1872, he published "Mechanism in Thought and Morals." He is also author of a valuable medical work, and of numerous
essays and poems of value.

When the civil war broke out, this conservative poet, who had taken little part in the agitation that preceded it, shared in every way the spirit and
duties of the time. None of our poets wrote more stirring war lyrics during the conflict none was more national so far as loyalty, in a Websterian sense, to
our country and her emblem is concerned. He always displayed the simple, instinctive patriotism of the American minute-man. He may or may not have sided with
his neighbors, but he was for the nation. His pride was not of English, but of long American descent.

Than Holmes, no one has written a greater number of short beautiful poems, that are on every tongue. When a noted American ship was declared unseaworthy,
and about to be abandoned, our poet came forward with a magnificent poem, entitled "Old Ironsides," that gave that fine old ship a half century of

But he gave us some of the best thoughts. Many of his sayings must stand among the finest specimens of American wit and humor and his writings, as a
whole, will always be classed among the best of their kind. In his prose works we are constantly delighted by the frequent occurrence of the most brilliant and
original thoughts. He will always stand in the temple of American literature, among the most brilliant and popular writers.

Child of Oliver Holmes and Amelia Jackson is:

1 i. Oliver Wendell Holmes, born 08 Mar 1841 in Boston, Suffolk Co., MA died 06 Mar 1935 in Washington, DC.

4. Abiel Holmes1, born 24 Dec 1763 died 04 Jun 1862. He was the son of 8. David Holmes and 9. Temperance Bishop. He married 5. Sarah Wendell.

5. Sarah Wendell1, born 30 Dec 1768 died 19 Aug 1862.

Child of Abiel Holmes and Sarah Wendell is:

2 i. Oliver Wendell Holmes, born 29 Aug 1809 died 07 Oct 1894 married Amelia Lee Jackson.

8. David Holmes1, born 1740. He married 9. Temperance Bishop.

9. Temperance Bishop1, born 1740. She was the daughter of 18. John Bishop and 19. Temperance Lathrop.

Child of David Holmes and Temperance Bishop is:

4 i. Abiel Holmes, born 24 Dec 1763 died 04 Jun 1862 married Sarah Wendell.

18. John Bishop1, born 1700. He married 19. Temperance Lathrop.

19. Temperance Lathrop1, born 1700. She was the daughter of 38. Joseph Lathrop and 39. Elizabeth Waterhouse.

Child of John Bishop and Temperance Lathrop is:

9 i. Temperance Bishop, born 1740 married David Holmes.

38. Joseph Lathrop1, born Oct 1661 died 05 Jul 1740 in New London, CT. He was the son of 76. Samuel Lothrop and 77. Elizabeth Scudder. He married 39.
Elizabeth Waterhouse.

39. Elizabeth Waterhouse1, born 22 Mar 1660/61 died 29 Nov 1726 in New London, CT.

Child of Joseph Lathrop and Elizabeth Waterhouse is:

19 i. Temperance Lathrop, born 1700 married John Bishop.

76. Samuel Lothrop2,3, born Abt. 1623 in England died 1700 in Norwich, New London Co., CT. He was the son of 152. John Lothrop. He married 77.
Elizabeth Scudder 28 Nov 1644 in Barnstable Co., MA.

77. Elizabeth Scudder4,5, born 12 May 1622 in England died 1700 in Salem, Essex Co., MA. She was the daughter of 154. John Scudder and 155. Elizabeth

"Samuel Lathrop was a builder of Boston, and a farmer of Barnstable, finally settling in now New London Co., CT, where he became one of the judges of the
local court organized in 1649. In 1668 he moved to Norwich, Connecticut, where he was chosen constable. He married (first), November 28, 1644, in Barnstable,
Elizabeth Scudder. they were the parents of nine children, their eldest, a son John, baptized December 7, 1645, their youngest a daughter, Anne, born August
7, 1667. Samuel Lathrop married (second), in 1690, Abigail Doane, born January 29, 1632, daughter of Deacon John Doane, of the Plymouth Colony. She survived
her husband thirty-four years, living to the great age of one hundred and two."

Excerpt from the biography of Ernest Avery Lathrop, "A Modern History of New London County, Connecticut," published 1922

Notes for Elizabeth Scudder:

Samuel and ElizabethÆs descendants include two presidents--Grant and FDR Benedict Arnold and the wives of two other noted Revolutionary figures
--"signer" Samuel Huntington and General Israel Putnam various modern political figures --Thomas Edmund Dewey, the Dulleses, the last two Adlai
Ewing Stevensons (via Bordens), and the wife of Charles Joseph Bonaparte, "Teddy" RooseveltÆs cabinet minister and NapoleonÆs great-nephew and
various "tycoon" families -- the Scribners, publishers, of New York, the Marshall Fields and the chewing-gum Wrigleys of Chicago, the King-Klebergs
of the King Ranch in Texas, Charles William Post of Post Toasties, and the wives of Levi Z. Leiter of Chicago and Leland Stanford of California. Boston
"Brahmins" among SamuelÆs and ElizabethÆs descendants include the two Oliver Wendell Holmeses and John Lothrop Motley, whose daughter married British
Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir William G.V. Harcourt. Other British connections include the 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, Foreign Secretary and Indian
Viceroy, son-in-law of Leiter and father-in-law of Fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley: European descendants include the wife of Czeckoslovakian President Thomas
Jan (later Garrigue) Masaryk and mother of Jan Garrigue Masaryk, Czech Foreign Minister (Charlotte Garrigue, whose mother was a New England Whiting).

Hollywood figures among Lathrop/Scudder descendants include Dina Merrill, Anthony Perkins, Tuesday Weld and a wife of director Preston Sturges. Mormon
descendants include Mary Anne Van Cott, one of the 16 wives of Brigham Young by whom he left children, 4th president Wilford Woodruff, and leaders Orson and
Parley Parker Pratt, plus ParleyÆs great-grandson, political figure George Romney. Later intellectual figures of Lathrop/Scudder descent include college
presidents Daniel Coit Gilman of Johns Hopkins, Frederick A.P. Barnard of Columbia and Charles Seymour of Yale, landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead of
Central Park, poet Hart Crane, critic William Lyon Phelps, composer Charles Ives, novelist Louis Auchincloss, Soviet expert George Frost Kennan, and the wives
of architect Richard Morris Hunt, composer Edward Alexander MacDowell, and novelist Robert Penn Warren, and the husband of anthropologist Ruth Benedict. Lastly
among these Lathrop/Scudder descendants, I wish to mention Serena Alleyne Stanhope Armstrong-Jones, Viscountess Linley, Princess MargaretÆs daughter-in-law and
a "minor royal", whose matrilineal great-grandmother was a Sumner of Boston. Presidents, some Revolutionary and later political figures, tycoons (in
New York City and the midwest especially), some Boston Brahmin intellectuals, several British or European figures (including some prime ministers, presidents,
or "royals") and Hollywood and Mormon figures from the West are all expected descendants of Connecticut or Connecticut Valley pioneers.

Jane Fiske discovered from Strood, Kent parish registers, the will of Reverend Henry Scudder, a marriage record of John Scudder and Elizabeth Stoughton, and
other sources, some already published in TAG or in publications of the Scudder Family Association, that Elizabeth Scudder, wife of Samuel Lathrop, was the
daughter of the above John Scudder and Elizabeth Stoughton, a sister of Thomas and Israel Stoughton of Dorchester, Mass. John Scudder was a brother of Thomas
Scudder of Salem and an uncle of Thomas Scudder of L.I.

Source: Genealogical Thoughts by Gary Boyd Roberts, NEHGS Senior Research Scholar, author and reference librarian

Descendants of Elizabeth Scudder include Ulysses S. Grant, Benedict Arnold, Marjorie Merriwether Post, her daughter Dina

Merrill (the actress), Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Thomas E. Dewey, John Foster Dulles and Frederick Law Olmsted, codesigner of New York's Central Park.

SOURCE: Scudder Association

Children of Samuel Lothrop and Elizabeth Scudder are:

38 i. Joseph Lathrop, born Oct 1661 died 05 Jul 1740 in New London, CT married Elizabeth Waterhouse.

ii. Abigail Lothrop, born 11 May 1665 in Norwich, CT died 19 Nov 1745 in Norwich, CT married John Huntington 09 Dec 1686 in Norwich, New London
Co., CT born 15 Mar 1665/66 in Norwich, CT died 07 Nov 1732 in Norwich, CT.

iii. Anne Lathrop6,7, born Aug 1667 died 19 Nov 1745 in Norwich, New London Co., CT married William Hough born 13 Oct 1657 in New London Co.,
CT7 died 22 Apr 1705 in New London Co., CT7.

Excerpt from the biography of Ernest Avery Lathrop, "A Modern History of New London County, Connecticut," published 1922

"Samuel Lathrop, who was brought from England by his father, Rev. John Lathrop, in 1734. Rev. John Lathrop came into open conflict with the Archbishop
of London, where he was pastor of an Independent church, and with forty-three members of his church was arrested, April 29, 1632, and thrown into prison.
While he was in prison, his wife died and finally he was released on the condition that he would leave England. Accordingly he sailed with his children, and
in 1634 arrived in New England. He founded a church in Scituate, Massachusetts, and with many of his congregation moved to Barnstable."

76 i. Samuel Lothrop, born Abt. 1623 in England died 1700 in Norwich, New London Co., CT married Elizabeth Scudder 28 Nov 1644 in Barnstable Co.,

154. John Scudder, born Abt. 1588 in Kent, England. He was the son of 308. Henry Scudder. He married 155. Elizabeth Stoughton.

Child of John Scudder and Elizabeth Stoughton is:

77 i. Elizabeth Scudder, born 12 May 1622 in England died 1700 in Salem, Essex Co., MA married Samuel Lothrop 28 Nov 1644 in Barnstable Co., MA.

308. Henry Scudder, born 1545 died Bet. 1594 - 1595. He was the son of 616. John Scudder.

Henry Scudder was the father of the immigrant, Thomas Scudder, and is referred to as Reverend Doctor Scudder.

Henry Scudder, d 1594-1595 is likely the son of a John Scudder, who died by October

18, 1584, when his widow Margaret deeded property at Sutton at Hone and Horton

Kirby to her son Henry Scudder, carpenter a William Scudder (likely brother)

signed the "final concord" with her on "eighth day of St. Martin", Nov 19, 1585.

Henry Scudder is an ancestor of General Hiram Ulysses Grant, General John Sedgwick, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Oliver Wendell Holmes (father and son), and
Charles Julius Guiteau (assassin of President James Garfield).

Children of Henry Scudder are:

i. Thomas Scudder8,9, born 1586 in Darenth, Kent, England died Bef. 29 Jun 1658 in Salem, Essex Co., MA married Elizabeth Unknown in Darenth,
Kent, England died 1666.

Family members in this country probably will find they are descended from four Scudders who arrived from England in the early 17th century to the Massachusetts
Bay Colony. First was Margaret who, with her husband Captain John Johnson and their family, settled in Roxbury. Then followed John and his sister Elizabeth,
married later to Samuel Lathrop, who settled in Barnstable. Finally, Thomas, his wife Elizabeth, and their children settled in Salem in 1636.

THOMAS SCUDDER is said to have been a son of "Rev. Dr. Henry Scudder of England, who presided at a convention of clergymen appointed by the King at
Westminster in 1643," and to have come from Groton, England, in 1636 with his wife ELIZABETH, and children John and Elizabeth. He settled in Salem, Mass.,
and died in 1657. The daughter married Samuel Lothrop. A correspondent of the New York Evening Mail, February 25, 1905, says the wife of Thomas Scudder was
Elizabeth Lowers of Daruth, Kent Co., England, and gives the following children: John Thomas Henry, married Catherine Este Elizabeth, born in 1622 married,
1st, Henry Bartholomew, and second, November 28, 1644, Samuel Lothrop William and Martha.

Source: Bibliographic Information: Boardman, William F. J. The Ancestry of William Francis Joseph Boardman. Harford, Connecticutt. 1906.

Back many years ago, a genealogical researcher named H.F. Waters published an item entitled,

"Genealogical Gleanings in England." In it he wrote about a will from 1645 for John Lowers of

Darenth, Kent, England. In the will, John spoke of his daughter, Elizabeth, and her children, all

surnamed Scudder. Since Thomas Scudder of Salem was from the same area in Kent, and the

childrens' names in the will were similar to Thomas', Waters assumed that Thomas' wife was

Elizabeth Lowers. Some other researchers in reading this old will, read the name to be Somers.

Later, a will of Henry Scudder of North Cray, Kent, dated 1641, was found. This will proved that

Henry, not Thomas of Salem, was the husband of Elizabeth Lowers, daughter of John Lowers. The

surname of Thomas' wife is still unknown.

Many family historians, being somewhat lazy or unversed in research, accepted Waters' assumption

as fact. That's why we still see Thomas of Salem married to Elizabeth Lowers or Somers.

In some cases, adding confusion, other family historians confuse Thomas with John Scudder of

Barnstable (actually Thomas' nephew) who was married to Hannah, surname unknown. In other

cases, family historians confuse Thomas with his son, John Scudder, who married Mary King.

Scudder Family Genealogy Forum

Posted by Chris Scudder, April 30, 1999

154 ii. John Scudder, born Abt. 1588 in Kent, England married Elizabeth Stoughton.

616. John Scudder, died 18 Oct 1584.

Henry Scudder, d 1594-1595 is likely the son of a John Scudder, who died by October 18, 1584, when his widow Margaret deeded property at Sutton at Hone and
Horton Kirby to her son Henry Scudder, carpenter a William Scudder (likely brother) signed the "final concord" with her on "eighth day of St.
Martin", Nov 19, 1585. TAG 72:291, 1997

308 i. Henry Scudder, born 1545 died Bet. 1594 - 1595.

1. Roberts, Gary Boyd, Notable Kin, (Santa Clarita, CA: Carl Boyer, 3rd, 1999).

2. Calkins Family Association, Kenneth W. Calkins, Editor, Calkins Family In America, (Salem, MA: Higginson Book Company, September, 2000).

3. Roberts, Gary Boyd, Notable Kin, (Santa Clarita, CA: Carl Boyer, 3rd, 1999).

4. Calkins Family Association, Kenneth W. Calkins, Editor, Calkins Family In America, (Salem, MA: Higginson Book Company, September, 2000).

5. Roberts, Gary Boyd, Notable Kin, (Santa Clarita, CA: Carl Boyer, 3rd, 1999).

6. Ettie T. McCall, McCall-Tidwell and Allied Families., (Atlanta, Georgia: Walter W. Brown Publishing Co., 1931.).

7. Calkins Family Association, Kenneth W. Calkins, Editor, Calkins Family In America, (Salem, MA: Higginson Book Company, September, 2000).

8. William F. J. Boardman, The Ancestry of William Francis Joseph Boardman, (Hartford, Connecticut: 1906).

9. Francis Baxley Lee, Genealogical and Personal Memorial of Mercer County, New Jersey., (1907).

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