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Peripteral Temple at Stratonicea

Peripteral Temple at Stratonicea


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Delphi, Temple of Apollo (Building)

Peripteral Doric temple, 6 x 15 columns, with cella opening east onto a pronaos, also having an opisthodomos, both porches distyle in antis. Two rows of columns inside the cella. Probably a northern row of 8 columns and a southern row of only 6 columns (because of the statue base resting against the southern cella wall). Beneath the western end of the cella is a chamber that held the Omphalos and the Oracular shrine.

Built on the same location as an earlier Temples of Apollo. A 7th century B.C. temple was burned in 548 B.C. and replaced by a larger structure at ca. 525 B.C., which was in turn destroyed in 373 B.C. The temple described above in the Plan description was built by Xenodoros and Agathon on the Archaic temple foundations. Its northern side rested on the bedrock and its southern side on a platform built to support the temple. Alternative reconstructions place a cross wall at the west end of the cella to create a separate adyton. The temple as it stands today has been partially re-erected.

Rossiter 1981, 409 Dinsmoor 1975, 217 PECS, 266

See Also: Delphi, Temple of Apollo, East Pediment Delphi, Temple of Apollo, West Pediment Delphi, Temple of Apollo, Nike


Peripteral Temple at Stratonicea - History

The Temple of Concordia (Italian: Tempio della Concordia) is an ancient Greek temple in the Valle dei Templi (Valley of the Temples) in Agrigento (Greek: Akragas) on the south coast of Sicily, Italy. It is the largest and best-preserved Doric temple in Sicily and one of the best-preserved Greek temples in general, especially of the Doric order. It is still unknown to whom this temple was dedicated.

This temple is of the peripteral type with double cell in antis. Together with the Parthenon, it is considered the best preserved Doric temple in the world.

The name of the temple is due to the discovery in the vicinity of a Latin inscription with a dedication to the concord of the Agrigento people who in reality has no other links with it. The name of “Temple of Concordia” is documented by one of the first Sicilian historians: Tommaso Fazello.

History
The temple was built c. 440–430 BC. The well-preserved peristasis of six by thirteen columns stands on a crepidoma of four steps (measuring 39.42 m × 16.92 m (129.3 ft × 55.5 ft), and 8.93 m (29.3 ft) high) The cella measures 28.36 m × 9.4 m (93.0 ft × 30.8 ft). The columns are 6 m (20 ft) high and carved with twenty flutes and harmonious entasis (tapering at the tops of the columns and swelling around the middles).

It is constructed, like the nearby Temple of Juno, on a solid base designed to overcome the unevenness of the rocky terrain. It has been conventionally named after Concordia, the Roman goddess of harmony, for the Roman-era Latin inscription found nearby, which is unconnected with it.

If still in use by the 4th-and 5th century, it would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. The temple was converted into a Christian basilica in the 6th century dedicated to the apostles Peter and Paul by San Gregorio delle Rape, bishop of Agrigento and thus survived the destruction of pagan places of worship. The spaces between the columns were filled with walling, altering its Classical Greek form. The division between the cella, the main room where the cult statue would have stood in antiquity, and the opisthodomos, an adjoining room, was destroyed, and the walls of the cella were cut into a series of arches along the nave. The Christian refurbishments were removed during the restoration of 1785. According to another source, the Prince of Torremuzza transferred the altar elsewhere and began restoration of the classic building in 1788.

On April 25, 1787 Goethe, visiting Agrigento, lingers on the Valley of the Temples where he spends great words for the temple of Concordia but also criticizes the poor quality of the restoration carried out on the stone:

«The temple of Concordia has lasted for centuries its slender line approximates it to our concept of beauty and agreeable, and compared to the temples of Paestum we would say it the figure of a god in front of the appearance of a giant. There is no need to deplore the lack of taste with which the recent, laudable attempts were made to preserve these monuments, filling the faults with a dazzling white plaster, so much so that the temple presents itself, to a considerable extent, as a ruin and yet it would have been so simple to give chalk the color of corroded stone! Of course, to see how easily the limestone tuff of the columns and walls crumbles, it is no wonder that it could have endured so long. But precisely for this reason architects, hoping for equally capable continuers,
(Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Journey to Italy)

According to authors of a 2007 article, it is “apart from the Parthenon, the best preserved Doric temple in the world.”

Description
The so-called Temple of Concordia is one of the best preserved temples of Greek antiquity. The building owes its traditional name to a Latin inscription dating to the mid-first century BC which mentions the “Concordia degli Agrigentini”. The inscription was erroneously attributed to the temple by the historian and theologian Tommaso Fazello in the mid 1500s.

The building, constructed in the Doric order, was built around the second half of the fifth century BC and features a base of four steps upon which stand six columns on the short sides and thirteen on the long sides. It is a quadrilateral of 19.758 meters by 42.230, little more than a double square that occupies an area of 843.38 m² and develops a height of 13.481 meters. It is unique among the temples in the Agrigento area in that it has retained almost all of its entablature and the two capitals on the east and west sides.

This temple has a peripteral type plan, since in addition to the central double cell in antis (with the presence of nao and pronaos) there is also a perimeter colonnade.

This temple, built on a massive base destined to overcome the unevenness of the rocky ground, for the state of conservation is considered one of the most remarkable sacred buildings of the classical era in the Greek world (430 BC).

On a crepidoma of four steps (39.44同.91 m) stands the well-preserved peristasis of 6吉 columns (portico surrounding the naos), high m. 6,67 and characterized by twenty grooves and harmonious entasi towards 2/3 (curvature of the vertical section), surmounted by an epistle, frieze of triglyphs and metopes and frame with mutuli the eardrums are also fully preserved. The cell, preceded by a pronao in antis (like the opisthodomos) is accessed through a step well preserved are the pylons with stairsAccess to the roof and, on top of the cell walls and in the blocks of the entablature of the peristasi, the business for the truss wooden cover. The exterior and interior of the temple were covered with stucco with the necessary polychrome.

The sima showed eaves with lion-like protomes and the covering provided for marble tiles. Its structure was strengthened due to the transformation into a Christian church (6th century) which first of all led to a reversal of the ancient orientation, whereby the back wall of the cell was demolished, the intercolumns closed and twelve arched openings were made in the walls of the cell, so as to constitute the three canonical naves, the two lateral ones in the peristasis and the central one coinciding with the cell. Then the classical period altar was destroyed and the sacristies were placed in the east corners, the building became a virtually perfect basilica organism. The pits dug inside and outside the church refer to high-medieval burials, according to custom placed in close relationship with the basilica.

The temple’s interior is divided into the portico at the entrance, the naos and the opisthodomos, the rear room, with the portico and opisthodomos framed by two columns. The door to the naos is flanked by two pillars which contain a carved service staircase leading to the roof. According to the tradition, the temple was converted into a Christian church towards the late sixth century AD when Gregory, Bishop of Agrigento, exorcised the pagan demons Eber and Raps and dedicated the ancient temple to the Apostles Peter and Paul.

The twelve arches in the walls of the naos bear testament to the building’s time as a Christian church, a purpose to which it owes its exceptional state of preservation.

Finally, the duality of the pagan demons and its dedication to two Christian saints has led to the theory that the temple was originally devoted to two Greek gods (one such theory refers to Castor and Pollux). However, with the absence of any archaeological evidence or epigraphs the truth as to which god or gods the temple was originally built to honour is unknown.

Alignment archaeoastronomical
Like almost all Greek temples, it is aligned according to the east-west direction. In particular, studies have been carried out in the past on its alignment with the rising of the sun during the spring equinox.

Valley of the Temples
The Valley of the Temples is an archaeological park in Sicily characterized by the exceptional state of conservation and by a series of important Doric temples from the Hellenic period. It corresponds to the ancient Akragas, monumental original nucleus of the city of Agrigento. Today it is a regional archaeological park.

The Valley includes remains of seven temples, all in Doric style. The ascription of the names, apart from that of the Olympeion, are a mere tradition established in Renaissance times. The temples are:

Temple of Concordia, whose name comes from a Latin inscription found nearby, and which was built in the 5th century BC. Turned into a church in the 6th century AD, it is now one of the best preserved in the Valley.
Temple of Juno, also built in the 5th century BC. It was burnt in 406 BC by the Carthaginians.
Temple of Heracles, who was one of the most venerated deities in the ancient Akragas. It is the most ancient in the Valley: destroyed by an earthquake, it consists today of only eight columns.
Temple of Olympian Zeus, built in 480 BC to celebrate the city-state’s victory over Carthage. It is characterized by the use of large scale atlases.
Temple of Castor and Pollux. Despite its remains including only four columns, it is now the symbol of modern Agrigento.
Temple of Hephaestus (Vulcan), also dating from the 5th century BC. It is thought to have been one of the most imposing constructions in the valley it is now however one of the most eroded.
Temple of Asclepius, located far from the ancient town’s walls it was the goal of pilgrims seeking cures for illness.
The Valley is also home to the so-called Tomb of Theron, a large tuff monument of pyramidal shape scholars suppose it was built to commemorate the Romans killed in the Second Punic War.

Since 1997 the whole area has been included in the list of world heritage sites drawn up by UNESCO. It is considered a popular tourist destination, as well as being the symbol of the city and one of the main ones on the whole island. The archaeological and landscape park of the Valley of the Temples, with its 1300 hectares, is the largest archaeological site in the world.


Contents

Most ancient Greek temples were rectangular, and were approximately twice as long as they were wide, with some notable exceptions such as the enormous Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens with a length of nearly 2 1/2 times its width. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular, and are referred to as tholos. [1]

The smallest temples are less than 25 metres (approx. 75 feet) in length, or in the case of the circular tholos, in diameter. The great majority of temples are between 30–60 metres (approx. 100–200 feet) in length. A small group of Doric temples, including the Parthenon, are between 60–80 metres (approx. 200–260 feet) in length. The largest temples, mainly Ionic and Corinthian, but including the Doric Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, were between 90–120 metres (approx. 300–390 feet) in length.

The temple rises from a stepped base or "stylobate", which elevates the structure above the ground on which it stands. Early examples, such as the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, have two steps, but the majority, like the Parthenon, have three, with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo, Didyma, having six. [2] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which is a cella, a windowless room originally housing the statue of the god. The cella generally has a porch or "pronaos" before it, and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. The chambers were lit by a single large doorway, fitted with a wrought iron grill. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights. [2]

On the stylobate, often completely surrounding the naos, stand rows of columns. Each temple is defined as being of a particular type, with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front, and the other defining their distribution. [2]

  • Distyle in antis describes a small temple with two columns at the front, which are set between the projecting walls of the pronaos or porch, like the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus.(see left, figure 1.)[2]
  • Amphiprostyle tetrastyle describes a small temple that has columns at both ends which stand clear of the naos. Tetrastyle indicates that the columns are four in number, like those of the Temple on the Ilissus in Athens.(Figure 4.)[2]
  • Peripteral hexastyle describes a temple with a single row of peripheral columns around the naos, with six columns across the front, like the Theseion in Athens. (Figure 7.)[2]
  • Peripteral octastyle describes a temple with a single row of columns around the naos, (Figure 7.) with eight columns across the front, like the Parthenon, Athens.(Figs. 6 and 9.)[2]
  • Dipteral decastyle describes the huge temple of Apollo at Didyma, with the naos surrounded by a double row of columns, (Figure 6.) with ten columns across the entrance front. [2]
  • The Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, is termed Pseudo-periteral heptastyle, because its encircling colonnade has pseudo columns that are attached to the walls of the naos. (Figure 8.)Heptastyle means that it has seven columns across the entrance front. [2]

Precise measurements are not available for all buildings. Some have foundations that are intact and have been well surveyed so that the dimensions can be stated with accuracy. For others the size can only be estimated from scant remains. In these cases, in converting, measurements are stated to the nearest whole number. Some measurements may have been made originally in feet, converted to metres for publication, and converted back to feet for this article, with slight differences from some older publication.


Temple of Hephaistos

the Centaurs. The two bronze cult statures of the cella are believed to be the work of Alkamenes (prob. 421-415 BC), In the 3rd century BC a garden with small trees and shrubs was planted around the temple.
The Temple was converted into the church of St. George probably in the 7th century. In the early 19th century the church was used as a burial place for Protestants and for many European Philhellenes who died in the Greek War of Independence in 1821. The building remained in use through 1834, when it was the site of the official welcome of King Otto, the first king of the modern Greek state. Since then until the 1930's it was used as a museum.

Topics. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Churches & Religion &bull Notable Buildings.

Location. 37° 58.531′ N, 23° 43.297′ E. Marker is in Athens, Attica Region, in Central Athens Regional Unit. Marker is on Adrianou just from Agiou Filippou. Touch for map. Marker is in this post office area: Athens, Attica Region 105 55, Greece. Touch for directions.

Other nearby markers. At least 8 other markers are within walking distance of this marker. Temple of Apollo Patroos, Temple of Zeus Pharatrios and Athena Phratria, Benches or "Synedrion" (within shouting distance of this marker) Odeion of Agrippa and Gymnasium or "Palace of the Giants" (about 120 meters away, measured in a direct line) Water Clock (about 120 meters away) Stoa of Attalos (159-138 B.C.)

(about 210 meters away) The East Side of the Ancient Agora and the Stoa of Attalos (about 210 meters away) Church of the Holy Apostles (ca. A.D. 1000) (approx. 0.2 kilometers away) The Library of Pantainos (approx. 0.3 kilometers away) Areopagus Hill (approx. 0.4 kilometers away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Athens.

More about this marker. The Temple of Hephaistos is located in the Ancient Agora site. The street intersection above is near the entrance to the park.


Rediscovery

After sixty years of patient searching, the site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum led by John Turtle Wood excavations continued until 1879. A few further fragments of sculpture were found during the 1904-06 excavations directed by D.G. Hogarth. The recovered sculptured fragments of the fourth-century rebuilding and a few from the earlier temple, which had been used in the rubble fill for the rebuilding, were assembled and displayed in the "Ephesus Room" of the British Museum.

Today the site of the temple, which lies just outside Selçuk, is marked by a single column constructed of dissociated fragments discovered on the site.


Herostratus burning down one of the Seven Wonders of the World

On July 21 , 356 BC , Herostratus , in an attempt to immortalise his name , set fire to the to the wooden roof -beams of the Temple of Artemis , one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . For this outrage, the Ephesians sentenced Herostratus to death and forbade anyone from mentioning his name . Eversince this time, the term “ Herostratic fame ” relates to Herostratus and means, roughly, “fame at any cost”.

The Temple of Artemis

Modern archaeologist found that three successive temple buildings took place at the location where the Temple of Artemis was built. Apparently, the site was occupied as early as the Bronze Age and also some pottery finds were made that extend forward to Middle Geometric times . A peripteral temple with a floor of hard-packed clay was constructed in the second half of the 8th century BC and was probably destroyed by a flood .

A Temple Entirely of Marble

The new Temple of Artemis at Ephesus was designed by the architect Chersiphron and erected at the expense of Croesus . It was the first temple to be entirely of marble and supposedly represented one of the largest Greek temples ever built. According to Pliny , the temple had 127 columns , and 36 of them were carved with reliefs , one of them by Scopas , who also worked on the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus . It is believed that the temple took about 120 years to complete even though some sources state that the construction took even longer. The temple was about 115m long and 46m wide and soon became an important attraction , visited by merchants , and kings who paid homage to Artemis in the form of jewellery and goods . Unfortunately, shortly after its completion in 356 BC , the temple was destroyed by Herostratus . Apparently, he set fire to the wooden roof -beams, in order to seek fame – at any cost. The famous Temple of Artemis as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was destroyed, Herostratus was sentenced with death penalty , and the Ephesians forbade anyone from mentioning his name .

Damnatio Memoriae

In spite of the decreed damnatio memoriae, the contemporary historian Theopomposof Chios passed on the deed and the name of Herostratos in his work, so that he achieved his goal and his deed has remained unforgotten to this day. The temple’s destruction coincided with the birth of Alexander the Great and it is believed that Plutarch later remarked that Artemis was too preoccupied with Alexander’s delivery to save her burning temple . The name Herostratos became synonymous with a person who destroys cultural assets or commits other irrational acts out of a craving for recognition. Accordingly, Herostratos is a person who commits misdeeds just to become famous.

What Remains

Alexander offered to pay for the temple rebuilding, however, the Ephesians refused and eventually rebuilt it themselves. The third temple was even larger than the second and survived for about 600 years until it was destroyed in a raid by the Goths . Even though it remains unclear if the temple had ever been rebuilt another time, some of the columns were probably used in Hagia Sophia [4] and the Parastaseis syntomoi chronikai records that several statues and other decorative elements from the temple were re-used throughout Constantinople .


Early Temples

While Greek temples starting in the early Archaic period varied widely, all of them were constructed on the principles of beauty and harmony.The earliest temples tended to be long and narrow, with proportions 1:3, and from the sixth century onward, the plans approached a 1:2. Most Greek temples share several stylistic characteristics.

The naos (cella in Roman times) is the windowless room that housed the cult statue, and it is often located at the center of the plan. The pronaos is the porch often with two columns between antae (extended walls) with the opisthodomos, a rear porch, adding balance to the temple structure

The prostyle consists of a colonnade across the front of the temple while the amphipropstyle includes colonnades across front and back of the temple. The most common style is the peristyle with colonnades surrounding the naos and the porches. The peripteral style, considered normal and function for simple worship, consists of a single colonnade while the dipteral style, found in elaborate temple has colonnades that encircle the temple. The pseudoperipteral style has a colonnaded portico with columns engaged into the walls of the building.


Parthenon

Within the cella a Doric colonnade two tiers high supported the roof timbers and divided the space into a lofty central nave bounded by an aisle on three sides. Toward the west end of this nave stood the Athena Parthenos, the colossal gold and ivory statue by Phidias dedicated c.438 and destroyed in antiquity. The inner chamber, to the west, apparently served as treasury and was entered through a large western doorway. The pediments terminating the roof at each end of the building were ornamented with sculptured groups depicting the birth of Athena on the eastern end and the contest between Athena and Poseidon on the western end. The upper part of the cella walls and the friezes above the porticoes formed a continuous band of sculpture around the building. The friezes traditionally have been said to represent the Panathenaic procession held every fourth year in homage to Athena, but this interpretation of them only dates to the late 1700s no ancient description of the subject of the friezes survives. Of the 525 ft (160 m) of this sculptured frieze, 335 ft (102 m) still exists. The western portion is now in the Acropolis Museum the greater part of the remainder, removed by Lord Elgin, is in the British Museum (see Elgin Marbles). Fragments also are in museums in six other countries.

In the 6th cent. the Parthenon became a Christian church, with the addition of an apse at the east end. It next served as a mosque, and a minaret was added to it. In 1687, in the Venetian attack on Athens, it was used as a powder magazine by the Turks and the entire center portion was destroyed by an explosion. The beauty of the Parthenon began to be appreciated in the 18th cent., and in 1762 measured drawings by James Stuart and Nicholas Revett gave strong impetus to the classic revival. After the end of Turkish control (1830), intensive archaeological study of the Parthenon commenced. Numerous attempts have since been made to establish the mathematical or geometrical basis supposedly employed in producing the design's high perfection. Restoration work is still being done.

See studies by P. E. Corbett (1959), R. Carpenter (1970), M. Beard (2003), and J. B. Connelly (2014).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

See more Encyclopedia articles on: Greek Physical Geography


Ancient City of Stratonikeia

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Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party

Description

Stratonikeia is located in the borders of the Village of Eskihisar, 7 kilometers west of the district of Yatağan in the province of Muğla. It lies on Kadıkule Hill in the west of the fertile Yatağan Plain at the crossroads of main routes that connect western, central and southern Anatolia with each other. Stratonikeia, inhabited continuously from the Late Bronze Age (1500 BC) to the present day, is one of the most important city-states in inner Caria. The name of the settlement was Atriya in Hittite Period, Khrysaoris and Idrias in Classical Period and Stratonikeia in Hellenistic Period. The name of the Hellenistic city was given by the Commander Seleucid Antiochus I, after the name of his former stepmother and later wife Stratonike in the first quarter of the third century BC. In subsequent periods, Stratonikeia changed hands among Ptolemaics, Macedonians and Rhodians. In 130/129 BC, the region became a part of the Roman Republic (then Empire). It benefited greatly from the continuous construction efforts that began with the Early Imperial Period.

From the Early Byzantine Period the population started to decrease and during the Middle Byzantine period the city continued to shrink. After the conquest of Anatolia, the Turkish tribes extended as far as southwestern Anatolia at the end of 11th century. Stratonikeia was continuously inhabited in the Principalities Period in the 14-15th centuries and afterwards. Over time it came under the control of the Ottoman administration and was decorated with many magnificent noble architectural buildings. It is known that many aghas (landlords) were present at the village in the late Ottoman Period and to the new era of Turkish Republic. Although Eskihisar Village has moved to a new area after the earthquake in 1957, 4 families still remain in the historical village houses within the territories of the ancient city.

The borders of Stratonikeia are well known, thanks to the fortification walls (about 3600 m. long) and size of the city can easily be determined. It is known that throughout history Stratonikeia suffered from many earthquakes and was rebuilt numerous times. Indeed, civic planning during the Hellenistic and Roman Periods was highly organized. The city was designed on a Hippodamian plan in the Hellenistic Period and the same plan was continued in the Roman Imperial Period. The infrastructure (e.g. sewage) system of the city was worked to perfection.

Structures in Stratonikeia:

The Gymnasium was built near the northern wall to the southwest of the northern city gate in the 2nd quarter of the 2nd century BC. The north side forming the narrow façade is 105 m wide. The total length of the building is estimated to be 267 m. Hence it is the largest known gymnasium from the Ancient Period.

Bouleuterion, located at the center of the city, was built in the east-west direction and has a rectangular plan. Based on the architectural elements and decoration, the building can be dated back to the second half of the 1st century BC.

The theater was built on a natural slope of the Kadikule Hill in the southern part of the city. The Greco-Roman type of theater is one of the structures known to date from the Hellenistic period. Based on the estimations through its present day remains, it must have hosted approximately 12.000 people.

Augustus-Imperial Temple is situated on an upper terrace south of the theater and gives the impression of being designed together with the theater. The peripteral temple is of Ionic order. Based on its architectural fragments, it dates back to the Early Imperial Period.

Roman Bath 1, constructed in the 2nd century AD, is one of the three baths in Stratonikeia indicated by the inscriptions. The building, constructed on the north-south axis, has a symmetrical plan as a part of Carian tradition. It is composed of apoditerium, frigidarium, tepidarium and at least 6 service rooms, all of which are symmetrically organized.

The Northern City Gate located on the northern fortification wall is where the sacred road coming from the Lagina Hekate meets the city. Therefore, it is of great importance both as an entrance and a ritualistic place. According to archaeological evidence, the gate must have been built in the Late Antonine-Early Severan period. The northern city gate has a monumental arched entrance on either side. Between the two entrances facing the city there is a Monumental Fountain having semi-circular pools decorated with two-tiered columns and statues in Corinthian order.

The Colonnaded Northern Street, which is 8.70 m wide, begins from the south mid-section of the open area in front of the northern city gate and continues towards the city center. In front of the gate is a 42 m wide open space surrounded by 8 monumental Corinthian columns and there are shops on the west. This was a gathering place for people who entered the city and those who came from the city to use the fountain.

The Square of old Eskihisar Village is located to the west of the ancient city, approximately 50 m east of the western fortification wall. Here the Turkish Bath (14-15th centuries), Şaban Ağa Mosque (1876), 10 coffeehouses, 5 butchers, 2 bakeries, 2 tailor shops and 20 various shops (from the first half of 20th century AD) can be seen from the Principalities, Ottoman and Republican periods. The monumental sycamore trees, which are more than 200 years old, enhance the beauty of the square. The stone paved roads and the sidewalks of the Ottoman period seen in the village square and in front of the shops are well preserved. Buildings of the old village of Eskihisar are remarkable examples of civil architecture. It is observed that blocks of classical antiquity were re-used as construction materials in many of those buildings. Most interesting examples of re-using those ancient materials are the house of Abdullah and Hadi Eskişar (constructed in 1876) and the house of Mehmet Eskişar (constructed in 1909). In both Agha houses, marble pieces derived from the marble blocks of antique buildings are re-used inside the whole wall pattern with bricks. Another example of a typical Agha house is the Hasan Şar House which was constructed in 1940. The building materials of this house with a hipped roof are rubble stones, ancient marble fragments and bricks. It was used as an excavation house until 1999. Today it serves as Museum store.

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

Stratonikeia, which hosted many civilizations from antiquity to modern times, is one of the significant archaeological sites in Asia Minor and has unique characteristics. The city continuously developed during the Classic, Hellenistic and Roman Imperial periods and gradually became a center of trade, art and culture. Today it is a significant and unique example as a settlement that keeps the characteristics of culture of different civilizations, succeeds to preserve its main structure and shows an entirety.

Ancient writers Herodotus (v, 118), Strabon (xiv, ii, 25), Pausanias (5, 21, 10) and Stephanus of Byzantium (Ethnica 696) mention a settlement here named Khrysaoris or Idrias. The settlement was transformed into a city in the Classical Period. In the early 3rd century BC, it was converted into a city- state by Seleucid King Antiochus I after the name of his wife Stratonike. During the Hellenistic Period the construction of the city was conducted on the basis of a grid plan and it was embellished with major architectural monuments built of white marble. After changing hands among different powers, it eventually became a regional centre until Late Roman era. Buildings from the antique period show that the city was a lively, wealthy and active center.

Stratonikeia was not only important in antiquity but also in Seljuk and Ottoman Periods. Encompassing an area of about 720 square kilometres, it is one of the places where buildings from the classical antiquity as well as the Ottoman and Turkish Republican periods can be observed. Buildings from different periods located in the center of the city were connected to each other with stone-paved roads, which have inclinations to the side or to the center for rainwater drainage, from the Ottoman Period. Thus, a visitor has the opportunity to see many structures belonging to different periods while walking on the stone-paved streets from the Ottoman period.

The city has substantial amount of inscriptions in Greek, Latin and Ottoman which provide information about social and economic facts from different periods. But two examples on north anta wall of the Bouleuterion are rare inscriptions that were ever found in Turkey. The one on the interior façade of the north anta is a calendar which is made by Menippos, a native of Stratonikeia and according to Cicero one of the most distinguished orators of his time, in Greek dating back to the beginning of the first century B.C. The calendar carries the names and day numbers of 12 months for the year 1505 indicating the year of foundation of the city. The other inscription on the exterior façade is in Latin showing the price list of merchandises and services in Stratonikeia in Roman period in 301 A.D. Hence, the sales in the city remained under control and inflation was prevented. This inscription is the best preserved example in Asia Minor and the only one carved on a wall of a boluleterion.

Stratonikeia has two major holly sites dedicated to Zeus and Hekate, the goddess of magic, moon, ghosts and necromancy. It was famous for the rituals held in the city centre and in the sacred sites. Two of these rituals are well-known. One of these rituals was the key carrying ritual that included walking for about 9 km from Lagina Hekate sacred site to Stratonikeia. The second was the carrying of the Zeus statue between Stratonikeia and Panamara Zeus-Hera sacred sites.

Stratonikeia has been known as the city of eternal love and gladiators throughout the ages. It was a center where gladiators were trained, did demonstrations and spent their life after retirement. Sport was clearly important to Stratonikeans, who built what might be the largest gymnasium in antiquity in the 2nd century B.C. just west of the north gate. The 105 meter wide and 267 meter long complex served both as a sports center and a classroom, where history and philosophy classes were given in the past.

Criterion (ii): Being inhabited interruptedly for more than 3500 years, Stratonikeia (Eskihisar) reflects the interaction among different cultural and architectural elements that belong to different periods. The prominence of this settlement is defined by the integrity of the architectural elements from both the antiquity and vernacular architecture as well as its continuity while the existing village of Eskihisar lays upon the settlement of Stratonikeia of antiquity. In fact, the ancient city of Stratonikeia and the old village of Eskihisar are not independent examples of two different civilizations, but they are integral parts of a heritage formed by the people who lived in different periods.

Criterion (iv): Stratonikeia is home of unique and magnificent structures dating back to Archaic, Classic, Hellenistic, Roman Imperial, Byzantine, Principalities, Ottoman and Turkish Republic periods. Examples of the public, religious and civic structures seen at ancient sites in Turkey are represented in Stratonikeia. As the one of the world’s largest ancient cities made of marble, Stratonikeia is one of the precious settlements with its monumental buildings such as the gymnasium, bouleuterion, theatre, bath complexes, northern city gate and fountain. Apart from the ancient structures, buildings of the old village of Eskihisar are important examples of Principalities, Ottoman and Turkish architecture. The agha houses from the 19th and 20th centuries and the buildings define the city’s Bazaar are the products of an assembly of integration, where different cultures come together. The well-planned village square has survived until today with its characteristic structure comprising Turkish Bath, Şaban Ağa Mosque, coffeehouses, bakery and various shops, monumental plane trees and the best preserved stone pavement road known from the Ottoman period with sidewalks. The site embodies a combination of man-made monumental grandeur and elegance, as well as the beauty of natural environment.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

The integrity and authenticity of Stratonikeia can be easily understood from its remains, ancient records and documentation. The property has been conserved appropriately to the Law on the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Property since it was registered as an archaeological site with the decision of the Superior Council of Immovable Antiquities and Monuments in 1982. The site has been regularly controlled and monitored by the State in order to sustain its cultural values.

The first scientific excavations at the site began in 1977 under the direction of Prof. Dr. Yusuf Boysal. Since 2008, researches, excavations and restoration works have been carried out by Prof. Dr. Bilal Söğüt. The excavated monuments are part of the conservation program and are constantly monitored and maintained. Conservation and restoration works have been concentrated on preserving ancient Stratonikeia and the old village of Eskihisar in a holistic approach.

In respect of the integrity and coherence of ancient city and old Turkish village architecture, Stratonikeia is one of the rare examples in our country as Ancient City of Stratonikeia and Village of Eskihisar significantly retain their original architectural characteristics. The city offers visitors a unique experience of seeing its monumental ancient structures and examples of architecture from Late Ottoman – Early Republican Period on the either side of stone paved Ottoman streets. Walking along the streets of Stratonikeia is like travelling in a time tunnel that one can see many structures from the Hellenistic, Roman, Ottoman and Turkish Republican period.

Comparison with other similar properties

Unlike most of the coastal sites such as Ephesus, Miletos, Kaunos, which were slowly deserted as the area silted up, being well inland Stratonikeia was in use as a settlement up until today. This situation has been instrumental in the emergence of a unique mix of ancient buildings and examples of Turkish architecture. No other ancient city like Stratonikeia exists where one can see the ancient ruins by walking on stone-paved Ottoman streets and sidewalks.

Gymnasium is one of the most important and indispensable public buildings in a city in Classical Antiquity. The gymnasium in Stratonikeia comes to the forefront of its kind as the largest structure in Ancient Period. The bouleterion, with its two inscriptions on the north anta, the calendar made by Menippos and the price list of merchandises and services in Stratonikeia as well as with the floral ornamentation and inscriptions from the Ottoman Period on the southern wall, is an extraordinary example of its kind. Northern City Gate and Fountain is considered as an architectural wonder with its mirable combination of Doric external and Corinthian internal orders in the same structure, two monumental arched entrances on the either sides, two-floor monumental fountain decorated with sculptures in the middle and the square in front it. Although there is a slightly similar example in Perge, Northern City Gate and Fountain in Stratonikeia is the only known example in terms of its monumental scale and design.

In ancient times, Ephesos and Miletos were famous with their sacred sites Artemision and Didymaion and annual festivals and rituals held in these sites. Similary Stratonikeia, which is the only known state-city with two major holly sites dedicated to Zeus and Hekate, was famous for the rituals and festivals held in the city center and in the sacred sites.