We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Mount Fuji Timeline - History
- 2500 to 300 - The Jomon Period when the first settlements appeared in Japan.
- 300 - The start of the Yayoi Period. The Yayoi introduced the farming of rice.
- 100 - Metal tools are made from bronze and iron. The primary religion is Shinto.
- 500s - Japanese culture is influenced by China. Chinese writing and characters are introduced.
- 538 -The religion of Buddhism comes to Japan.
- 593 - Prince Shotoku comes into power. He promotes Buddhism and brings peace to Japan.
- 752 - The Great Buddha statue at Nara is completed.
- 781 - Emperor Kammu reigns over Japan.
- 794 - The capital city is moved from Nara to Kyoto.
This period is sometimes referred to as the feudal period of Japan. The land was ruled by powerful warlords called "daimyo" and their leader, called "shogun." These warlords often battled each other.
- 1192 - The Kamakura Shogunate government is formed when Yoritomo is appointed the first Shogun.
- 1274 - The Mongols, led by Kublai Khan, attempt to invade Japan, but fail when a typhoon destroys much of the Mongol navy.
- 1333 - The Kemmu Restorations occurs when the Kamakura Shoganate is overthrown.
- 1336 - The Ashikaga Shogunate takes power.
- 1467 - The Onin war occurs.
- 1543 - The Portuguese arrive in Japan bringing firearms.
- 1549 - Christianity is introduced by Francis Xavier.
- 1590 - Japan is unified under the leadership of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He establishes the Edo Shogunate.
- 1592 - Japan invades Korea.
- 1614 - Christianity is banned in Japan and Christian priests are forced to leave.
- 1635 - Japan becomes isolated from the world restricting all foreigners except for a few Chinese and Dutch merchants. This period of isolation will last for more than 200 years.
- 1868 - Emperor Meiji takes over when the Edo Shogunate loses power. The Empire of Japan is formed.
- 1869 - Emperor Meiji moves to the city of Edo renaming it Tokyo.
- 1894 - Japan and China go to war. The Japanese win and gain territory including Taiwan.
- 1904 - Japan goes to war with Russia. Japan wins emerging as a major world power.
- 1910 - Korea is officially annexed as a Japanese colony.
- 1914 - World War I begins. Japan joins in the alliance with the Allied Powers against Germany.
- 1918 - World War I ends. Japan gains a seat on the Council of the League of Nations.
- 1947 - The Constitution of Japan goes into effect.
- 1952 - The United States occupation comes to an end. Japan regains independence.
- 1964 - The summer Olympics are held in Tokyo.
- 1968 - Japan becomes the second largest economic power in the world.
- 1972 - The United States returns Okinawa to Japan.
- 1989 - Emperor Hirohito dies.
- 2011 - Earthquake and Tsunami cause extensive damage including radiation leaks from a nuclear plant.
Brief Overview of the History of Japan
Japan is an island nation that has well over 6000 islands. The four largest islands make up by far the majority of the country's land. In the 8th century, Japan became unified into a strong state ruled by an emperor. In 794, Emperor Kammu moved the capital to what is today Kyoto. This started Japan's Heian period where much of today's distinct Japanese culture emerged including art, literature, poetry, and music.
In the 10th and 11th centuries Japan entered into a feudal era. During this time the samurai, a ruling class of warriors, came into power. The leader of the most powerful clan of samurais was called the shogun. In 1467 a civil war broke out call the Onin War. It was between the shogun and the feudal warlords, called daimyo. Japan was once again unified in 1590 under Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
During the 1500s the Portuguese arrived in Japan. They began to trade and learn about European society and the west. However, in the 1630s the shogun closed the country to outside contact and trade. This policy was called sakoku. Japan would remain closed to foreigners for over 200 years. In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States forced Japan to reopen relations with the rest of the world. Japan became an empire ruled by an emperor.
In World War II Japan allied with the Axis Powers of Germany and Italy. On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the United States bombing Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. This caused the United States to enter the war on the side of the Allies. Japan surrendered in 1945 when the US dropped atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In 1947 Japan adopted a constitution with a democratic government. Since then Japan has grown into a powerful nation with one of the world's largest economies.
The Importance of Mt Fuji to Geology
Mount Fuji is Japan’s highest and most striking mountain. It is also still considered to be an active volcano by geologists, although it is not expected to erupt in the near future. In addition to being a memorable and striking vista and a potential source of danger, however, Mt. Fuji is also extremely important to geology because it is an example of a “triple junction” where three different tectonic plates meet.
According to the modern theory of plate tectonics, Earth’s surface consists of extremely large rock formations called plates, which drift across the surface of the globe at the rate of an inch or two per year and regularly bump and jostle one another on the long fault zones where two plates meet. When one plate passes under another, the fault line where they meet is often the site of frequent earthquakes as one plate hangs up on the other for a brief period, then suddenly gives way and moves as much as several feet. In addition to earthquakes, however, fault zones can also be the site of volcanic eruptions.
Volcanoes erupt when the shifting plates create a rupture in the crust through which liquid magma escapes from the Earth’s molten interior. The magma gradually cools and hardens into solid rock, creating conical mountains like Mount Fuji. Mount Fuji’s last eruption was in the early 1700s, when escaping magma formed a massive ash field running down the east side of the mountain. Geologists do not believe Mount Fuji is truly dormant (inactive) now, since it still lies along the meeting zone of the plates which caused the last eruption. However, there are currently no definitive signs that another eruption is imminent.
Although volcanoes are common along certain types of faults where plates are colliding or moving away from each other, Mount Fuji is especially unusual and important to geology because it sits at the meeting point not of two plates, but three. This is referred to as a “triple junction.” Below Mount Fuji converge the Amurian plate (part of Eurasia) from the west, the Okhotsk plate (originally part of North America but running underneath the Pacific) from the east, and the Filipino plate from the south.
In addition, geologists now realize that Mount Fuji is an unusual form of basalt-based composite volcano – a volcano which has accumulated its present form through several successive massive eruptions. Mount Fuji’s first life, known as its Komitake phase, began about 700,000 years ago, when the volcano was still emitting andesite rather than basalt. The northern side of Mount Fuji still contains rock from the Komitake volcano. Next, about 80,000 years ago, a new series of eruptions began known as “Old Fuji” or “Older Fuji,” with the new volcano forming along the south side of the remains from Komitake. The present-day Mount Fuji is in the middle of a third phase, “Younger Fuji,” which began 11,000 years ago.
The last Younger Fuji eruption occurred in the 1700s. Most scientists believe another eruption is still very possible, but probably not imminent. Some geologists have noted that pressure might be climbing within the mountain’s magma chamber again, however, indicating that the volcano might be building toward the next major eruption.
Dec 16, 1707 CE: Most Recent Eruption of Mount Fuji
On December 16, 1707, Mount Fuji, Japan, erupted for the last time to date. It is still an active volcano!
Mount Fuji is an active volcano that last erupted in 1707.
Photograph by Melville B. Grosvenor, National Geographic
On December 16, 1707, scientists recorded the last confirmed eruption of Mount Fuji, Japan&rsquos highest point. Fuji is composed of several overlapping volcanoes. The top two are known as &ldquoOld Fuji&rdquo (Ko Fuji) and &ldquoYoung Fuji&rdquo (Shin Fuji). Fuji has erupted at various times starting around 100,000 years ago&mdashand is still an active volcano today.
Fuji&rsquos last eruption ejected tons of tephra into the atmosphere. Tephra includes all solid volcanic material&mdashnot lava or volcanic gas. Tephra released by the 1707 eruption of Fuji (called the Hoei eruption) included volcanic ash and volcanic rock, such as pumice and scoria. Tephra blanketed the city of Edo (now the central part of Tokyo, more than 100 kilometers (62 miles) away).
Japan is located on the most geologically active part of the planet, the Ring of Fire. The roughly horseshoe-shaped Ring of Fire circles the South Pacific, the eastern rim of Asia, and the western edge of the Americas. This region is known for its volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Japan is no exception. Fuji&rsquos Hoei eruption was preceded by a massive earthquake. The estimated-8.6-magnitude earthquake likely triggered a primed Fuji to erupt.
The damage&mdashespecially the deaths&mdashfrom these disasters, plus a tsunami, is hard to untangle. But what can be attributed to the Hoei eruption is the damage to homes near Fuji. The tephra fallout also reduced agricultural productivity in the region, causing many people to starve to death.
Brief History of Krakatoa
Earliest known eruption of Krakatoa, described as a " thundering noise and a fiery glow in the sky." Heavy storms and rain took place, earthquakes and tsunamis likely took place.
There is no geological evidence of a Krakatoa eruption of this size around that time, but it is proven as there was tectonic activity between islands.
Krakatoa is Responisble for Global Climate Changes
Eruption that possibly led to the 535-536 AD Global Climate Change, a rapid change in Earth's climate. The event is caused by a atmospheric dust veil, dropping the temperature, blocking of sunlight and causing many social devastations such as droughts and crop failures.
It also may be responsible for the creation f the islands, Verlaten, Lang and Rakata.
Dutch Activity on Krakatoa
A time, where the Dutch were in control of Indonesia for their variety in spices, mainly pepper. Krakatoa was installed with a few pepper plantations and naval stations. Generally, the Dutch ignored Krakatoa.
Volcanic Activity in 1680
The next eruption of Krakatoa responsible for a great storm and several Earthquakes at sea, accompanied by crackling and thunder. Also, a plumage of excessive ash and pumice, resulting in a sulphuric atmosphere.
1883 Eruption of Krakatoa
May 20th 1883 - August 27th 1883
A time where an devastating eruption took place. Preceding the catacylmic eruption, a series of lesser eruptions took place in May 20th.
May 20th- A series of miniscule Earthquakes took place. These earth quakes were most likely due to seismic activity in the tectonic plate. It portrays a scene were the plates were converging, troubling continents as there was friction created, arising Earthquakes. The residents were somewhat worried, but most could not relate this to a catastrophe. The oceanic plane was troubling as waves were rapidly increasing in size and quantity. The vents were overpowering with steam, and subtle explosions could be heard from distant islands.
June 11th- Eruptions could be heard again, and ash piles were exceeding limits. Due to this, black clouds were spotted in the atmosphere, blocking out the sun, and lowering temperatures.
June 24th - Ash columns were seen above the volcano, and the depth of the ocean was unusually high. Many ships had hold anchor, as a series of earthquakes followed and large amounts of pumice were seen hovering on the ocean.
August 11- A serious period of time, where ash was piling rapidly on Krakatoa and small eruptions took place. A sign of storms brewing was considered. At this time the sea level was incredibly high, and ships around Krakatoa were suffering.
August 25- Explosions amplified and the ash cloud rose, allowing the volcano to be in paroxysmal stage. The rate of eruptions increased and a storm took place. Later, a tsunami swept up the shores of Java and Sumatra.
27 August-four enormous explosions took place at 05:30, 06:44, 10:02, and 10:41 local time. At 5:30 am, the first explosion was at Perboewatan volcano, triggering a tsunami heading straight to Telok Betong, now known as Bandar Lampung. At 6:44 am, Krakatoa exploded again on Danan volcano, with the resulting tsunami stretching eastward and westward. The largest explosion, at 10:02 am, was so violent that it was heard 3,110 km away in Perth, Western Australia, and the Indian Ocean island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, 4,800 km away, where they were thought to be cannon fire from a nearby ship
The final eruption created a pressure wave that rotated around the globe 3.5 times, endangering ears and destroying many villages.
Toyota’s FJ series is positively famous for not breaking down–which is why you can still find authentic antique FJs all over the world in working condition (at the very least, you can find suitable samples for restoration). Since it’s used for so many purposes, it seems almost fitting that there are nearly countless configurations in the FJ Series from wheelbase height to the type of covering for the roof and more.
The Japanese approach to engineering critically rests on the relentless pursuit of perfection. It’s not good enough to have the mentality of “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” they would prefer that it never break at all. Why replace something when you can build it right the first time? Given that, it’s no surprise that the quality and durability of the FJ’s transmission and suspension is legendary. The leaf spring suspension is particularly worth mentioning: it’s absolutely suited for a heavy vehicle like the FJ, spreading the weight around more evenly, plus it actually alleviates the need for additional weight from extra parts that you would need with coil suspension.
The electrical system tends to survive just about anything you throw at it. It’s truly unmatched in terms of reliability and superiority for cars of this era–especially when you consider the beating many FJs have endured over their lifetimes in conditions most vehicles can barely handle for a day of driving.
Fujifilm was established in 1934 with the aim of producing photographic films. Over the decades we have diversified into new markets and built a strong presence around the globe.
|1934||Jan.||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., established, based on a government plan to establish a domestic photographic film manufacturing industry. The new company inherited the split-off photographic film operations of Dainippon Celluloid Company Limited.|
|Feb.||Ashigara Factory (currently the Kanagawa Factory Ashigara Site) began operating, producing photographic film, photographic print paper, dry plates, and other photosensitive materials|
|1938||June||Odawara Factory (currently the Kanagawa Factory Odawara Site) established|
|1944||Mar.||Business operations obtained from Enomoto Kogaku Seiki Manufacturing Co., Ltd., and Fuji Photo Optical Co., Ltd. established|
|1946||Apr.||Natural Color Photography Co., Ltd. (name changed to Fuji Color Photo Co., Ltd., in June 1953 and subsequently transformed into Fujicolor Service Co., Ltd.), established|
|1958||Aug.||Established Fuji Photo Film do Brasil Ltda. as a subsidiary in Brasil|
|1963||Oct.||Fujinomiya Factory established|
|1965||Apr.||Name of Fuji Color Photo Co., Ltd., changed to Fujicolor Service Co., Ltd., and marketing operations of Fuji Color Photo Co., Ltd., split off to establish Fujicolor Trading Co., Ltd.|
|Dec.||Fuji Photo Film U.S.A., Inc. (currently FUJIFILM U.S.A., Inc.) established in New York State to comprehensively manage business in North America|
|1966||June||Fuji Photo Film (Europe) GmbH (currently FUJIFILM Europe GmbH) established in Düsseldorf to comprehensively manage business in Europe|
|1972||Dec.||Yoshida-Minami Factory established|
|1982||Aug.||Netherlands-based Fuji Photo Film B.V. (currently FUJIFILM Manufacturing Europe B.V.) established as the Fujifilm group's principal manufacturing company in Europe|
|1987||Mar.||Germany-based Fuji Magnetic GmbH (a recording media manufacturing company, currently FUJIFILM Recording Media GmbH) established|
|1988||July||U.S.-based Fuji Photo Film, Inc. (currently FUJIFILM Manufacturing U.S.A., Inc.) established in South Carolina as the Fujifilm group's principal manufacturing company in the United States|
|1993||Oct.||Acquired 51% of outstanding shares in Chiyoda Medical Co., Ltd.|
|1995||Oct.||FUJIFILM Imaging Systems (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., established in Suzhou, China|
|1996||June||Hong Kong-based Hong Kong Fuji Photo Logistics, Ltd. (currently FUJIFILM Hong Kong Limited), established|
|1997||Dec.||Acquired German-based Eurocolor Photofinishing GmbH & Co. KG|
|2001||Oct.||U.S.-based Enovation Graphic Systems, Inc. (a graphic arts materials marketing company, currently FUJIFILM Graphic Systems U.S.A, Inc.), established|
|2003||Apr.||Acquired additional shares in Process Shizai Co., Ltd., (currently FUJIFILM Graphic Systems Co., Ltd.), transforming that company into a consolidated subsidiary|
|2004||Apr.||Chiyoda Medical Co., Ltd., merged into FUJIFILM MEDICAL CO., LTD.|
|Apr.||FUJIFILM Battery Co., Ltd., merged into FUJIFILM AXIA Co., Ltd.|
|Oct.||FUJIFILM IMAGING Co., Ltd., established. Fujicolor Imaging Service Co., Ltd., and FUJIFILM AXIA Co., Ltd., merged into the new company, which also took over the domestic marketing operations of four major photographic product distributors to unify the Fujifilm group's domestic imaging solutions marketing operations|
|Nov.||Acquired microelectronic materials business of U.S.-based Arch Chemicals, Inc., along with 100% of shares in joint venture FUJIFILM ARCH Co., Ltd. (currently FUJIFILM Electronics Materials Co., Ltd.)|
|2005||Feb.||Acquired U.K.-based Sericol Group Limited (currently FUJIFILM Sericol Limited), a company with expanding operations in screen printing inks, packaging printing inks, and industrial-use inkjet printer inks|
|2006||Jan.||Transformed Sankio Chemical Co., Ltd. (currently FUJIFILM FINECHEMICALS CO., LTD. ), into a wholly owned subsidiary|
|Feb.||Acquired Avecia Inkjet Limited (currently FUJIFILM Imaging Colorants Limited)|
|Apr.||FUJIFILM Advanced Research Laboratories established|
|July||Acquired U.S.-based industrial inkjet printhead manufacturer Dimatix, Inc. (currently FUJIFILM Dimatix, Inc.)|
|Oct.||Fujifilm group shifted to a holding company structure centering on the holding company FUJIFILM Holdings Corporation, which controls both the group's two largest companies &mdash FUJIFILM Corporation and Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.|
You can see the history after October 2006 on the FUJIFILM Holdings website.
Active Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico.
Located only 40 miles away from Mexico City, Popocatépetl is scary because of the fact that it did not have a massive eruption yet. The last activity was seen in 1994 when smoke started to come out of the mountain’s top. That was the first time Popocatépetl has shown any signs of life in 1000 years. Popocatépetl is near one of the biggest urban areas in the whole world. In case of an eruption, millions of people would be in danger.
Einstein vs. Bohr, Redux
Two books — one authored by Sean Carroll and published last fall and another published very recently and authored by Carlo Rovelli — perfectly illustrate how current leading physicists still cannot come to terms with the nature of quantum reality. The opposing positions still echo, albeit with many modern twists and experimental updates, the original Einstein-Bohr debate.
I summarized the ongoing dispute in my book The Island of Knowledge: Are the equations of quantum physics a computational tool that we use to make sense of the results of experiments (Bohr), or are they supposed to be a realistic representation of quantum reality (Einstein)? In other words, are the equations of quantum theory the way things really are or just a useful map?
Einstein believed that quantum theory, as it stood in the 1930s and 1940s, was an incomplete description of the world of the very small. There had to be an underlying level of reality, still unknown to us, that made sense of all its weirdness. De Broglie and, later, David Bohm, proposed an extension of the quantum theory known as hidden variable theory that tried to fill in the gap. It was a brilliant attempt to appease the urge Einstein and his followers had for an orderly natural world, predictable and reasonable. The price — and every attempt to deal with the problem of figuring out quantum theory has a price tag — was that the entire universe had to participate in determining the behavior of every single electron and all other quantum particles, implicating the existence of a strange cosmic order.
Later, in the 1960s, physicist John Bell proved a theorem that put such ideas to the test. A series of remarkable experiments starting in the 1970s and still ongoing have essentially disproved the de Broglie-Bohm hypothesis, at least if we restrict their ideas to what one would call "reasonable," that is, theories that have local interactions and causes. Omnipresence — what physicists call nonlocality — is a hard pill to swallow in physics.
Credit: Public domain
Yet, the quantum phenomenon of superposition insists on keeping things weird. Here's one way to picture quantum superposition. In a kind of psychedelic dream state, imagine that you had a magical walk-in closet filled with identical shirts, the only difference between them being their color. What's magical about this closet? Well, as you enter this closet, you split into identical copies of yourself, each wearing a shirt of a different color. There is a you wearing a blue shirt, another a red, another a white, etc., all happily coexisting. But as soon as you step out of the closet or someone or something opens the door, only one you emerges, wearing a single shirt. Inside the closet, you are in a superposition state with your other selves. But in the "real" world, the one where others see you, only one copy of you exists, wearing a single shirt. The question is whether the inside superposition of the many yous is as real as the one you that emerges outside.
The (modern version of the) Einstein team would say yes. The equations of quantum physics must be taken as the real description of what's going on, and if they predict superposition, so be it. The so-called wave function that describes this superposition is an essential part of physical reality. This point is most dramatically exposed by the many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics, espoused in Carroll's book. For this interpretation, reality is even weirder: the closet has many doors, each to a different universe. Once you step out, all of your copies step out together, each into a parallel universe. So, if I happen to see you wearing a blue shirt in this universe, in another, I'll see you wearing a red one. The price tag for the many-worlds interpretation is to accept the existence of an uncountable number of non-communicating parallel universes that enact all possibilities from a superstition state. In a parallel universe, there was no COVID-19 pandemic. Not too comforting.
Bohm's team would say take things as they are. If you stepped out of the closet and someone saw you wearing a shirt of a given color, then this is the one. Period. The weirdness of your many superposing selves remains hidden in the quantum closet. Rovelli defends his version of this worldview, called relational interpretation, in which events are defined by the interactions between the objects involved, be them observers or not. In this example, the color of your shirt is the property at stake, and when I see it, I am entangled with this specific shirt of yours. It could have been another color, but it wasn't. As Rovelli puts it, "Entanglement… is the manifestation of one object to another, in the course of an interaction, in which the properties of the objects become actual." The price to pay here is to give up the hope of ever truly understanding what goes on in the quantum world. What we measure is what we get and all we can say about it.
Fujisan, sacred place and source of artistic inspiration
The beauty of the solitary, often snow-capped, stratovolcano, known around the world as Mount Fuji, rising above villages and tree-fringed sea and lakes has long been the object of pilgrimages and inspired artists and poets. The inscribed property consists of 25 sites which reflect the essence of Fujisan’s sacred and artistic landscape. In the 12th century, Fujisan became the centre of training for ascetic Buddhism, which included Shinto elements. On the upper 1,500-metre tier of the 3,776m mountain, pilgrim routes and crater shrines have been inscribed alongside sites around the base of the mountain including Sengen-jinja shrines, Oshi lodging houses, and natural volcanic features such as lava tree moulds, lakes, springs and waterfalls, which are revered as sacred. Its representation in Japanese art goes back to the 11th century, but 19th century woodblock prints of views, including those from sand beaches with pine tree groves have made Fujisan an internationally recognized icon of Japan and have had a deep impact on the development of Western art.
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0
Fujisan, lieu sacré et source d'inspiration artistique
La beauté de ce volcan solitaire, souvent couronné de neige, s’élevant au-dessus de villages, de la mer et de lacs bordés d’arbres, a inspiré artistes et poètes. Il s’agit d’un lieu de pèlerinage depuis des siècles. Le site inscrit comprend 25 biens qui reflètent l’esprit de ce paysage artistique sacré. Au XIIe siècle, le Mont Fuji est devenu un centre de formation du bouddhisme ascétique (fusion du bouddhisme et du shintoïsme). Situés dans les 1 500 mètres supérieurs du volcan de 3 776 mètres, des chemins de pèlerinage et des sanctuaires du cratère ont été inscrits, mais aussi des sites répartis au pied du volcan, notamment les sanctuaires Sengenjinja, les auberges traditionnelles Oshi et des formations volcaniques traditionnelles telles que les arbres moulés dans la lave, les lacs, les sources et les chutes d’eau qui sont vénérés car considérés comme sacrés. Sa représentation dans l’art japonais remonte au XIXe siècle mais les estampes sur bois du XIe siècle, notamment celles représentant des plages de sable et des pinèdes, ont fait de Fujisan un symbole internationalement reconnu du Japon et ont eu une profonde influence sur l’art occidental de l’époque.
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0
Fujisan, lugar sagrado y fuente de inspiración artística
Mundialmente conocido por el nombre de Monte Fuji, este estratovolcán de gran belleza con su cima cubierta de nieve se yergue solitario dominando aldeas, lagos rodeados de árboles y las orillas del mar y ha sido lugar de peregrinación y fuente de inspiración de artistas y poetas. El sitio inscrito comprende 25 elementos que son un exponente del carácter sagrado del monte y su paisaje circundante. En el siglo XII, el Fujisan llegó a ser un núcleo central de las actividades de iniciación al budismo ascético, que comprende elementos sintoístas. El sitio comprende los caminos de peregrinación y los santuarios de los cráteres situados en los últimos 1.500 metros de esta cumbre de 3.776 metros de altura. También forman parte de él diversos componentes culturales como los santuarios sengen-jinja y las posadas tradicionales oshi, y toda una serie de elementos naturales como formaciones volcánicas, árboles moldeados en la lava, fuentes y cascadas, que se consideran sagrados. El Monte Fuji ha sido representado en el arte japonés desde el siglo XI, pero fue sobre todo a partir del XIX cuando las estampas xilográficas hicieron de él un símbolo internacional del Japón con una profunda influencia en el arte occidental de esa época.
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0
Fuji berg – heilige plaats en bron van artistieke inspiratie
De eenzame, vaak met sneeuw bedekte stratovulkaan – wereldwijd bekend als de berg Fuji – rijst uit boven dorpen, meren en door bossen omzoomde zee. De schoonheid van de berg vormt al lang de inspiratiebron voor kunstenaars en dichters en heeft de vulkaan tot een bedevaartsoort gemaakt. Fuji komt al sinds de 11e eeuw voor in Japanse kunst, maar dankzij de 19e-eeuwse houtsnedes groeide de 3.776 meter hoge berg uit tot internationaal symbool van Japan. Op de bovenste 1.500 meter zijn pelgrimsroutes en kraterheiligdommen te vinden. Aan de voet van de berg bevinden zich Sengen-Jinja heiligdommen, Oshi logementen en als heilig beschouwde lavaboomstructuren, meren, bronnen en watervallen.
Outstanding Universal Value
The solitary, often snow-capped Mount Fuji (Fujisan), rising above villages and tree-fringed sea and lakes, has inspired artists and poets and been the object of pilgrimage for centuries. Fujisan is a solitary strato-volcano, around 100 km south-west of Tokyo that rises to 3,776 meters in height. The base of its southern slopes extends to the sea shores of Suruga Bay.
The awe that Fujisan’s majestic form and intermittent volcanic activity has inspired was transformed into religious practices that linked Shintoism and Buddhism, people and nature, and symbolic death and re-birth, with worship ascents and descents to and from the summit, formalised in routes and around shrines and lodging houses at the foot of the mountain. And the almost perfect, snow-capped conical form of Fujisan inspired artists in the early 19th century to produce images that transcended cultures, allowed the mountain to be known around the world, and had a profound influence on the development of Western art.
From ancient times, pilgrims carrying a long staff, set off from the compounds of the Sengenjinja shrines at the foot of the mountain to reach the crater at its summit where it was believed that the Shinto deity, Asama no Okami resided. At the summit, they carried out a practice called ohachimeguri (literally, “going around the bowl”), processing around the crater wall. There were two types of pilgrims, those who were led by mountain ascetics, and from the 17th century onwards, those in greater numbers who belonged to Fuji-ko societies that flourished in the prosperous and stable Edo period.
As pilgrimages became more popular from the 18th century onwards, organizations were established to support the pilgrims’ needs and routes up the mountain were delineated, huts provided, and shrines and Buddhist facilities built. Curious natural volcanic features at the foot of the mountain, created by lava flowing down after volcanic eruptions, came to be revered as sacred sites, while the lakes and springs were used by pilgrims for cold ablutions, Mizugori, to purify their bodies prior to climbing the mountain. The practice of making a circuit of eight lakes, Hakkaimeguri - including the five lakes included in the Fujigoko (Fuji Five Lakes) - became a ritual among many Fuji-ko adherents. Pilgrims progressed up the mountain through what they recognised as three zones the grass area around the base, above that the forest area and beyond that the burnt or bald mountain of its summit.
From the 14th century, artists created large numbers of images of Fujisan and between the 17th to the 19th century, its form became a key motif not only in paintings but also in literature, gardens, and other crafts. In particular the wood block prints of Katsushika Hokusai, such as the Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji, had a profound impact on Western art in the 19th century and allowed the form of Fujisan to become widely known as the symbol of ‘Oriental’ Japan.
The serial property consists of the top zone of the mountain, and spread out around its lower slopes shrines, lodging houses and a group of revered natural phenomena consisting of springs, a waterfall lava tree moulds and a pine tree grove on the sand beach, which together form an exceptional testimony to the religious veneration of Fujisan, and encompass enough of its majestic form to reflect the way its beauty as depicted by artists had such a profound influence on the development of Western art.
Criterion (iii): The majestic form of Fujisan as a solitary strato-volcano, coupled with its intermittent volcanic activity, has inspired a tradition of mountain worship from ancient times to the present day. Through worship- ascents of its peaks and pilgrimages to sacred sites around its lower slopes, pilgrims aspired to be imbued with the spiritual powers possessed by the gods and buddhas believed to reside there. These religious associations were linked to a deep adoration of Fujisan that inspired countless works of art depicting what was seen as its perfect form, gratitude for its bounty, and a tradition that emphasised co-existence with the natural environment. The series of sites are an exceptional testimony to a living cultural tradition centred on the veneration of Fujisan and its almost perfect form.
Criterion (vi): Images of Fujisan as a solitary strato-volcano, rising above lakes and sea, have been a font of inspiration for poetry, prose and works of art since ancient times. In particular the images of Fujisan in early 19th-century Ukiyo-e prints by Katsushika Hokusai and Utagawa Hiroshige had an outstanding impact on the development of Western art, and have allowed the majestic form of Fujisan, which can still be appreciated, to be known around the world.
The series contains all the necessary components needed to express the majesty of Fujisan and its spiritual and artistic associations. However, because of development in the lower part of the mountain, the relationship between pilgrims’ routes and supporting shrines and lodging houses cannot readily be appreciated. The serial property currently does not clearly project itself as a whole, nor does it allow a clear understanding of how each of the component sites contributes to the whole in a substantial way. There is a need to strengthen the inter-connectedness between the component sites and to introduce interpretation that allows a more accessible understanding of the value of the whole ensemble and the functions of the various parts in relation to pilgrimages.
In terms of spiritual integrity, the pressure from very large numbers of pilgrims in two summer months, and the infrastructure that supports them in terms of huts, tractor paths to supply the huts and large barriers to protect the paths from falling stones, works against the spiritual atmosphere of the mountain. The Fuji Five Lakes (Fujigoko), and especially the two larger lakes – Lake Yamanakako and Lake Kawaguchiko, face increasing pressure from tourism and development, and the springs and ponds also face threats from low-rise development.
In terms of the ability of the series as a whole to convey its spiritual and aesthetic value, currently this is limited in relation to the way individual sites project their meaning in relation to each other, and to the whole mountain. The component parts need to be better integrated into the whole, with the relationship between shrines, and lodging houses and the pilgrim routes being clearly set out.
In terms of the authenticity of individual sites, the physical attributes relating to the upper routes, shrines and lodging houses are intact. The renewal of shrines on a periodic basis is a living tradition. The Ise Shrine is renewed on a 20-year cycle while some shrines (or parts of some shrines) associated with Fujisan are renewed on a 60-year cycle. This means their authenticity rest on their siting, design, materials and function as well as on the age of their component parts. However the location and setting of some of the component parts, such as between the five lakes, ponds, waterfall and a pine tree grove, is compromised by development that interferes with their inter-visibility.
Management and protection requirements
Various parts of the property have been officially designated as an Important Cultural Property, a Special Place of Scenic Beauty, a Special Natural Monument, a Historic Site, a Place of Scenic Beauty, and a Natural Monument, in addition to it being designated as a National Park. The overall landscape of the summit is protected as part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park and this includes the lava tree molds and Lakes Yamanakako and Lake Kawaguchiko. Most component sites, including the ascending routes, shrines and lakes within the summit, have been given national protection as important cultural properties, historic sites or places of scenic beauty – within the last two years. The Murayama and Fuji Sengen-jinja Shrines and the Oshino Hakkai springs were protected in September 2012.
For the buffer zone protection is provided by the Landscape Act and Guidelines for Land Use Projects (and related legislation). All component parts and the buffer zones are planned to be covered by Landscape Plans around 2016. These provide the framework within which Municipalities undertake development control.
What needs strengthening is how these various measures in practice control the scale and location of buildings that might impact on the sites. In principle they relate to the need for harmonious development (in colour, design, form, height, materials and sometimes scale). However, the strictest controls seem to relate primarily to colour and height. There is a need to control more tightly the scale of buildings, as well as the location of buildings, especially the siting of buildings, including hotels, on the lower flanks of mountains.
The two prefectures, Yamanashi and Shizuoka with relevant municipal governments have established the Fujisan World Cultural Heritage Council to create a comprehensive management system for the property. These bodies also work in close cooperation with the main relevant national agencies that are the Agency for Cultural Affairs, which is the competent authority charged with preserving and managing Japan’s cultural heritage properties, the Ministry of the Environment and the Forestry Agency. This Council is also receiving input from an academic committee of experts for the surveying, preservation and management of Fujisan.
The Fujisan Comprehensive Preservation and Management Plan was established in January 2012 to coordinate the actions of all parties, including local residents. The plan lays out not only methods for the preservation, management, maintenance, and utilization of the property overall but also for each individual component site and also sets out the respective roles that the national and local public bodies and other relevant organizations should play. In addition, there are park plans under the Natural Parks Law and forest management plans under the Law on the Administration and Management of the National Forests that provide measures for the management of the visual landscape from important viewpoints.
The property is subject to conflicting needs between access and recreation on the one hand and maintaining spiritual and aesthetic qualities on the other hand. A ‘vision’ for the property will be adopted by the end of 2014 that will set out approaches to address this necessary fusion and to show how the overall series can be managed in a way that draws together the relationships between the components and stresses their links with the mountain. This vision will then over-arch the way the property is managed as a cultural landscape and inform the revision of the Management Plan by around the end of 2016.
An overall conservation approach is needed for the upper routes and for the associated mountain huts in order to stabilize the paths, manage the erosion caused by visitors and water, and manage delivery of supplies and energy.
The Fujisan World Cultural Heritage Council is planning to complete the development of a Visitor Management Strategy and adopt it by the end of 2014. This is needed as a basis for decisions on carrying capacities for the heavily used upper routes, parking, service buildings and visual clutter, but also on how visitors may perceive the coherence of the sites and their associations. This is particularly crucial for the sites in the lower parts of the mountain where their relationship with the pilgrim routes is unclear. An Interpretation Strategy will be adopted around the end of 2014.